Why not?

Years have passed since The Arab Spring, yet the Syrian Civil War is still ongoing. Since the civil war, according to article on www.sozcu.com, which refers to the statement of Minister of Interior, 3.551.078 immigrants have fled to Turkey and they are spread around the cities, trying to survive in these lands. How heroic and merciful we are to accept a horde of immigrants for the sake humanity, for the heritage of ours from Ottoman Empire and for the facade.

Our humanity persisted and those refugees accommodated on our lands for years, they were eligible to get assistance from our government and humanitarian aids. They took free education, free salary, places to accommodate but nothing to give in return. The things have changed for them but not for their country and not for us, the Syrian War is still continuing and Turkish armed forces are still operating on those foreign lands but for what? For nothing? Isn’t there a reward to our heroic facade? We should be commemorated and paid back for our humanitarian acts.

Now I will offer you what you deserve, what I deserve and what our nation deserves. As the report states that there are over 3.000.000 refugees in Turkey and we can use them as resources such as suicide soldiers to assist our soldiers on foreign soils, visceral farms to harvest their visceral for helping those who are in need of organ transplant. We can conduct scientific tests on them improve our knowledge and reach far beyond our competitors, we can train them from youth to serve us as slaves for various purposes from house cleaners to assist our beloved women to sex slaves to serve our hard working men, they would have no aim in life but to serve.

By using them as suicide soldiers we may be able to drastically reduce soldier death ratio of ours as well as increasing mission success percentage due to acceptable casualties, by using them as visceral farming spots we may help our citizens who are in need of certain internal organs and speed up the process of organ transplant, by using them as test subjects we may speed up our researches and let ourselves braver than before, by using them as slaves we may let household focus on more crucial tasks and by using them as sex slaves we may let our men steam off on them and focus on crucial tasks without their wild desires.

Overall, such a valuable resource is going in vain. By taking the action we can turn a burden into a living resource that would help us in various ways.

Musa Kaan Durmuş

Disclaimer: This work was supposed to be disgusting and point out that reason by itself should be dangerous. I am not backing up any ideas here, please don’t take anything out of the context.

Inspired Work: A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift

Paradise on Earth

I woke up and looked around me with thrill. There was nothing but dried trees, nothing but plain soil, there was no light around me, it was night. I got up and started walking aimlessly, walking through trees only to find other trees. It was like a maze, a never ending maze and I was trapped in it with no idea. I was thrilled and anxious, I was hearing footsteps but couldn’t see anything, I had no choice but go onward into the unknown.

As I walked onward time went by and I finally found myself in a square with nothing in it. The ground was made of stones but they were untouched for years, wild plants were erecting through their gaps and soil was eager to conceal the rest. I looked up and saw the moon, the guiding moonlight in pitch black darkness. I lost my focus and kept looking at the moon, I had no thoughts but the moon in my mind and it got bigger and bigger. The moon wasn’t only on the arch now but it was in my eyes and mind as well. I closed my eyes involuntarily and woke up.

I was in my bed next to my beautiful wife, she was sleeping peacefully. I looked around me and tried to get over the shock of the horrific nightmare and I did. It was just a nightmare and now after horror I was in my bed next to my beloved, feeling her soft and warm skin on mine, making me calm and filled with love. I kissed her hand and got on my foot and head towards kitchen to prepare breakfast for my family. As I was passing through the aisle I saw my son and daughter playing a game on television, they looked cheerful and we greeted each other. As I went into the kitchen I sat on a chair and thought about the nightmare, how horrific it was but all that horror was gone, I was in my home with my family , on a calm Sunday morning preparing breakfast with various food.

30 minutes ago I was stuck in my dream and when I woke up, I actually woke up to my actual dream in life, the place I ever wanted to be, the source of my happiness and serenity, I was with my family in our little house, my love on the bed, kids are cherishing each other and me preparing breakfast with variety. The horror I experienced made me realize how happy I am, how that exact time I was experiencing the paradise on earth. I didn’t have to look anywhere else, I just had to realize I was living it after all.

Musa Kaan Durmuş

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Learner Autonomy in the language classroom

Why do we need it?

  • Basically about having one being responsible for his/her learning.

Scope for Autonomy in the CEF

  • The council of Europe supports methods of language teaching and learning.
    • Which help young people and indeed old learners to build up the attitudes, knowledge and skills they need to become more independent in thought and action, and more responsible and co-operative in relation to other people.
    • In this way the work contributes to the promotion of democratic citizenship.

The General Competence of Language Learners

  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Existential Competence
  • Ability to Learn

Which of the following tasks are the responsibility of the teacher?

  • Material selection / –
  • Final decision on what is right or wrong / –
  • Assessing students performance and giving feedback / –
  • Distributing and collecting materials and works / +
  • Providing information / –
  • Seating arrangements / –
  • Error correction / –
  • Sequencing of the learning materials / ?
  • Using tools and resources. / ?

Note: Negotiate with your students as much as possible.
* Aims and objectives
* Materials
* Self-directed learning
* Resources
* Ideas to deal with content
* Learner Roles
* Participatory
* Responsible
* Linking learning experiences
* Evaluation
* What
* Process and product oriented goals
* Why
* Planning, thinking
* How
* Observation
* …
* ..
* ..


Teacher Reflection Learner Reflection
————————— —————————


For Autonomous Learning

  • Starting with what they already know something about the target culture.
  • Achieving transparency in the choice of topics tone covered
  • Designing activities that will require personal response
  • Helping students to develop a comparative perspective on home culture and target culture.
  • Encouraging self-directed work through projects.

Learners as Decision Makers

  • The awareness of one’s present state of knowledge and skills.
  • The selection of objectives and goals to be pursued.
  • The self-directed choice of materials. The preferred methodology for learning.
  • The preferred modes of learning on one’s own.
  • The preffree means of assessment to see one’s own progress.

Structuring Reflection

  • What did you want to learn?
  • Did you sc


  • Promotes learner autonomy.
  • Helps the learner personalise his learning experience.
  • Encourages them to ry new learning strategies.
  • Challenges them to reflect on the process of learning.
  • Gives new direction to future work.

For Success Autonomous Learning needs to be..

  • Explicit
    • Know what you are studying for.
  • Systematic
  • Consistent
  • Reflective


AAA Curriculum

Any educational enterprise should include

  • Awareness
  • Autonomy
  • Authenticity

Learner Autonomy

Raising Awareness -> Changing Attitudes -> Transferring Roles


Process Writing

  • Emphasis on not only the end product but also the process.
  • You work together with the learners and there is continues peer support and there is writing, rewriting and again rewriting, that’s why it is a challenging thing but it is highly rewarding.
  • Generating Ideas<->Evaluating<->Drafting<->Structuring<->Focusing<->Reviewing<->Generating Ideas

Sequencing of Activities

  • Brainstorming, note-taking, asking questions
  • Free writing, selection of ideas, point of view Preliminary Draft
    * First revision
    * Organising content, structural organisation

Generating Ideas

  • Reading a text on the related topic
  • Doing research
  • Brain-storming
  • Individual listing ideas
  • Discussion
  • Answering guided questions of the teacher
  • Free association (clustering..,



  • İdentifying main and supportive ideas
  • Deciding how different ideas can be grouped together
  • Establishing logical links between groups of ideas
  • Deciding how to present these ideas in a sequence
  • Finding supportive points (additional knowledge)

Assessment of the Product

  • Content
    • Thesis statement, related ideas, delvopment of ideas through personal experience, illustration, facts, opinions, use of description, cause and effect, comparison, contrast
  • Organisation
    • Effectiveness of introduction, logical sequencing of ideas, conclusion, appropriate length
  • Discourse
    • Topic sentences, paragraph unity, transitions, discourse markers, cohesion, rhetorical conventions, reference-deictic words, fluency, economy, variation in the use of language patterns to avoid repetition and redundancy.
  • Language Use
    • Syntax+

Note: Teacher has to be correcting and responding.


Learning Styles

  • It has to do with the individual variables that is individual learners.

Learner Differences

  • Age
  • Motivation
  • Personality

Field Independent/Analytic

  • Enjoy individual work
  • Constantly compare what they have learnt
  • Good at abstraction
  • Analytical and they want to calibrate themselves
  • Left brain orientation
  • Long memory span

Field Dependent

  • Social learners
  • Rather initiative
  • Enjoy contextualised learning
  • Responsive and communicative


Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

How about assessing task difficult that is what makes a tack easier or more difficult than another task.

Task Difficulty

  • Cognitive level
  • Language complexity
    • Existence of hard grammar structures, new word density, use of high frequency and low frequency words
  • Accessibility
    • Subject Familiarity, but it does not come just with the topic, so there is this issue of topic familiarity.
    • Task familiarity, if they regularly do a task, they would get used to it and perform better but if you present them a new task.

As teachers, ask these questions to yourself

  • Why am I doing this task with the learners?
    • What is my purpose in doing this task?
      • You should focus either focus on accuracy, fluency or complexity.
  • What is the content of the task?
    • Drawing familiar or unfamiliar information.
    • To what extent they are familiar with the given content.
  • How is the task to be carried out?
    • Will there be planning before doing the task.
    • Should I give them planning time or should I ask immediate answers.
  • In what situation is the task to be carried out?
    • Will it be monologic or diologic?

Task Adaption is preparing the students to the task from the pre-task stage to make it easier for them.

Less structured information tasks = More creativity in the process.

Task Dimensions and Task Difficulty

  • Code Complexity
    • Linguistic complexity and variety.
    • Vocabulary load and variety.
    • Redundancy and density.
  • Cognitive Complexity
    • Cognitive Familiarity
      • Familiarity of topic and its predictability.
      • Familiarity of discourse genre.
      • Familiarity of task.
    • Cognitive Processing
      • Information organising.
      • Amount of computation.
      • Clarity and sufficiency of information given.
      • Information time.
  • Communicative Stress
    • Time limits and time pressure.
    • Speed of presentation.
    • Number of participants.
    • Length of texts used Type of response.
    • Opportunities to control interaction.


Foster & Skehan

  • …Being able to assess a task’s difficult is crucial to understating how it might be performed
  • Knowing what demands the task will make opens up the possibility of using task design to manipulate learners…


  • …in the case of tasks designed for language learning or teaching purposes, performance ,s concerned both kWh meaning and the way meanings are comprehended, expressed andengotiated.
  • A changing başance need to be established between attention to meaning and form, fluency and accuracy in the overall selection and sequencing of tasks so that both task performance and language learning process


* Is confident about the task
* Is motivated to carry out the task
* Has necessary prior learning experiences
* Can learn at pace required
* Has necessary

    * Low cognitive complexity
    * Has few steps
    * Plenty of context provided
    * Plenty of help available
    * Does not require grammatical accuracy
    * Has as much time as necessary

Text / Input
    * Is short, not dense (few facts)
    * Clear presentation
    * Plenty of contextual clues
    * Familiar, everyday content




Text / Input


Task Demands

Cognitive Demands
    * Degree of contextualisation of language; difficult of concepts that re needed to do the task.
        * Use of graphics, colours, telling the time…

Language Demands
    * Whether the language is spoken or written, understanding or production, extended talk or conversation; vocabulary and grammar need, the genre, the amount of L1 and L2

Interactional Demands
    * Type of interaction required.
        * Group work, pair work, the participants in talk, the future of interaction. 

Metalinguistic Demands
    * The use of technical terms about langue in production or comprehension.

Involvement Demands
    * The ease or difficulty the learner has in engaging with the task; legs of task stages, links to child’s interest and concerns.

Physical Demands

* How long the child sits still for; actions needed, motor skills needed.


Abstract things are always more difficult than concrete things.

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

TBLT follows task-cycle, in the task cycle there is preliminary introduction from the teacher that may be introduction of the task or the topic, there are mini-introduction required for the task.

Learners usually engage in pair or group work. First of all students plan how to make the task, then they work on task and finally then they report their conclusion. When this stage is over the stage of language focus comes which is solely focused on practicing lacking language skills.

Meaningful purpose exists in the tasks in which we replicate the real life events.
A reasonable input to act upon. It means that the kinds of input into task-cycle such as instructions.
Language outcome
Optimal level of difficulty, it shouldn’t be more difficult than cognitive development of the learner.

Material Selection Criteria (1st Phase)

  1. Exploitability: Make sure you choose such material but it really gives you chance to different types of tasks by the same topic and same material.
  2. Topic (Variety): Topic has to be a motivated one but at the same time related to real life concerns and make you sure that you include variety to topic selections.
  3. Length: It’s always good to choose a material that can be handled in chunks. If it’s not designed that way that may harm their feel of accomplishment, by completing series of chunks they will feel accomplished.
  4. Linguistic Complexity: If you focus on teaching on new vocabulary, it should be toned down. If it’s optimum it will give students to take a chance and respond.
  5. Accessibility: Can they really respond or would they really know about the given topic. It is mostly about content knowledge and familiarity.
  6. Copyright
  7. Motivation

Tasks (2nd Phase)

  1. Purpose
  2. Input
  3. Outcome
  4. Optimum Level of Difficulty

Task Difficulty (3rd Phase)

  • ———


Level of the leaners: B1
Class Population: 20


  • First of all the teacher greats the students and asks them how are they vaguely. After that the teacher tells his students that he has brought some brochures and asks them to divide in groups of four lastly distributes brochures to the students.
  • After the distributions phase, the teacher asks the students to guess what are these brochures, what could they be about, what are their purpose etc. (brainstorming)
  • When the brainstorming phase is over the teacher asks his students if they ever participated in such activities, if they did they he would ask them some volunteers to narrate their experiences or if no one has ever participated in such an activity, the teacher tells his story (anectods)


  • After the pre-task stage, the teacher asks his students to stay in groups of four decide upon an outdoor activity business. Upon deciding their business they are going to design their own business brochures for advertisement purposes regarding the previously given brochures as the input material. (Media Projects)


  • Upon finishing their brochures, they will advertise their business by presentation of their brochures.



  • Form groups of 4 and inspect the given brochures. Discuss what could be purpose of these brochures. Have you ever participated in such outdoor activities, if you did narrate your memory to the class.


  • In groups of four, inspect the given brochures again and then discuss and decide upon an outdoor business. Imagine that you are responsible for advertisement and design a brochure for your business regarding the previously given brochures in the sense of layout, language and informative value.


  • After designing your advertisement brochures, present them to the class and advertise your business according to the points you have made on your brochure.

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

1980-1990 >

It is an advanced form of the communicative. The need is helping learners gaining fluency in the target language.

  • It needs to be learner centred
    • You have to be engaging them in a task-based work.
    • You give the task, they work on it, they use the language and they try to progress communicatively.
  • It is really based on cooperative and collaborative learning.
    • There is space for individual tasks but you can not possibly persue task based learning in your classes without having pair and group works.
  • It is based upon interactive learning.
    • Interactive learning in that sense can only be achieved if only the upper conditions are served already as well as using an authentic text.
    • You have to be proficient in material design.
  • It supports whole language learning
    • Means integration of all skills such as listening, speaking and writing.
    • Task based learning is basically about how we use languages to fulfil certain tasks.
    • From the very beginning you encourage your students to all these skills.
    • It is about using language to fulfil social circumstances.
    • The sum of the parts do not make the whole.
      • Alination of units.
      • Anti structural.

Task based learning is holistic learning.
The key concern in task based context is meaningful learning.
* Drills never ever can be task based learning.

PPP (Presentation – Practice – Production)

  • Present the topic (Simple Present Tense)
  • Practice in a very controlled way (Drills)
  • You assume that students will be able to produce this (In an other context)
  • This is a linear approach.

Task based methodology is designed as an alternative way to the PPP model. TBL changes the sequence of this linear model.

  • It starts with a mini-presentation.
    • Teacher explains what kind of a task they are going to accomplish.
    • Teacher gives input for the necessary target.
  • Production
    • Students in a way engage in task accomplishment immediately.
    • This allows the use of learning by doing it.
  • If there is need for a specific language focus for further work on that language item, then Practice stage comes.

Task Based Learning Framework

    * The teacher introduces the topic and provides the necessary input for the upcoming task.
    * It is the preparation for the task-cycle.
Task Cycle
        * After the task is done, the group or the individual have/has to present the conclusion to the other students.
        * This is especially important as the students may fall into their native languages to accomplish the task and for this reason reporting stage makes them report their task result in the target language and that is why it is very important.
Language Focus
        * If explicit grammar teaching is required after the task cycle.

Task Identification Criteria

  • Meaningful Purpose
    • Use of language in a meaningful way as you would use it in your daily life language.
  • Input
    • Providing a clear input to act upon.
    • What kinds of materials do I bring in, what kind of task instructions do I give.
  • Output
    • It needs to have a language outcome
    • By doing this task and reporting the task results, they should be engaged in meaningful communication.
  • Optimum Level of Difficulty
    • Optimised difficulty for the students.
      • It is about their cognitive level, not their English level.

Task Types

  • In lıtereature there are alternative ways of defining task types
    • Open Tasks: Unpredictable as whole
    • Close Tasks: Spot the difference: Language might be used in unpredictable ways but at the end the outcome will be certain.
  • No tasks type is harden than the other.
  • Tasks could be cumulative (add on each other)
  • Task Types
    • Listing
      • Could be used for self-assessment.
    • Ordering – Sorting:
    • Comparing:
    • Problem Solving:
    • Sharing Personal Experiences:
    • Creative Tasks: