Hello Everyone!

Just like in the previous titles, modding your game is no hard job in Sekiro but I found my self obligated to publish this guide as Linux users’ mods won’t work without a simple trick.

Sekiro Mod Engine

First of all you need to install Sekiro Mod Engine, which enables us to modify the game preferences and also use the mods that we want to see in the game.

Firstly, you need to register to https://www.nexusmods.com in order to download latest versions of the mods and the Sekiro Mod Engine. After creation of account, simply download it from this link https://www.nexusmods.com/sekiro/mods/6?tab=description

Download Page

After downloading Sekiro Mod Engine, you need to extract the file to your Sekiro: Shadows Die Twice installation folder and then make a directory/folder as “mods” on your installation directory.

Congrats! Now you installed Sekiro Mod Engine but it doesn’t end here of course. If you are on Linux you will realize that Sekiro Mod Engine is not working. Next step will be exclusive to Linux users.

Set Launch Options (Linux)

If you are playing the game on Linux and want to use mods, you need to go in your steam library and then right-click on Sekiro: Shadows Die Twice and select Properties. On the properties window select Set Launch Options and type

WINEDLLOVERRIDES="dinput8.dll=n,b" %command%

After typing just click on OK and launch your game. If you see no Logos of From Software and Activision, you are good to go.

Downloading and Installing Mods

You can download the latest mods from https://www.nexusmods.com/sekiro/mods/. After downloading the mods you wanted, you simply extract and drag them onto your previously created “mods” directory/folder by regarding their specific installation instructions.

After all these steps, your mods should work flawlessly on both operating systems 🙂

Nefs nefsini tadan hayvanlar akılsızlıklarıyla temizledikleri kalplerini zeka ile örülmüş kafesler içerisinde sonsuzluğa yolculuk ediyorlar.

Musa Kaan Durmuş – 2019

Herkese Merhabalar,

Suriye’deki iç savaştan beri ülkemize ciddi oranda Suriyeli sığınmacılar yerleşti ve halkımızın hoşgörüsü ve acımasıyla bu topraklarda kendi topraklarında yaşadıklarından daha iyi durumda yaşamlarını sürdürdüler ve sürdürüyorlar.

Yaşamlarını bu derece iyi sürdürmelerinin sebeplerinden birisi de devletimizin onlara birinci sınıf vatandaş muamelesi yapıp, kendi vatandaşını ikinci plana atmasıdır. Çalışan ve üreten Türk halkının devletimize ödediği vergilerin bu insanların geçinmesinde, ev sahibi olmasında, çocuk yetiştirmesinde büyük payı var.

İç savaştan sonra buraya böyle yerleşen Suriyeli göçmenler elbette ki bizim ülkemize ayak uydurup kendi kültürlerini kimsenin gözüne sokmadan yaşıyorlar ve ülkemizin rengine renk katıyorlar. Mesela beni bugün çok şaşırtan ve hayatıma yeni bir renk katan bir şey paylaşmak istiyorum sizlerle.

Biliyorsunuz ki YouTube’un Trending diye adlandırılan bir sekmesi var. Bu sekmede bulunan ülkede popüler olan şeyler gösterilir ve böylece zaten viral olan paylaşımların daha viral olması sağlanır. Türkiye’mizde de önemli ölçüde Suriyeli nüfus olduğundan ötürü artık Türkiye’nin Trending sekmesinde de Arapça yazılarla donatılmış, Arapça konuşulan paylaşımlar bulabilirsiniz.

İşte sizinle bu hayatıma kültürel çeşitliliğin kattığı renklerden biri olan bu paylaşımı paylaşmak istiyorum,

Ekran görüntüsünde de gördüğünüz gibi Türkiye’nin Trending sekmesinde bir numarada yer alan paylaşım Arapça olan, Arapça yazılan ve terör, şiddet teşviki yapan bu paylaşımdır. Bu paylaşımın hayatıma kattığı renkleri bir bilseniz, nasıl hissettiğimi bir bilseniz… Bazen diyorum ne iyi yapmışız bu Suriyeli kardeşlerimizi milyonlarla alarak, bizlere nasıl renkler kattılar kendileri.


Hello Everyone!

Spider-Man is a surprise for me, a surprise but a welcomed one. Since my childhood I always have been biased with the super-hero games. The reasoning behind bias is that most super-hero games are nothing but cash-grabs, such as Super-Man games or Marvel’s other titles other than Spider-Man in general. To my surprise, with Sony’s aid, this game has taken its place among my favorites.

Currently I am playing through DLC’s and already finished the game with 100% completion, which means I did all the side-quests, collected every collectible and completed all the city-wide activities.

Now let’s get into the review!

General Information

Spider-Man is an exclusive title for PS4 and released at 2018. Three big companies (Sony Interactive Entertainment, Insomniac Games, and Marvel) teamed up for this title and released an authentic Spider-Man adventure for us which takes hours to complete and costs 60 dollar for US and 90 dollars for Turkey.

In this game you play as three characters, such as Peter Parker (Spider-Man), Marry Jane Watson (Reporter and Partner of Peter Parker) and Miles Morales from Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse. Throughout the game, you will mostly play as Spider-Man and and do some stealth missions with the other two

Full completion of the game takes up to 20 hours and with the DLC’s it can stretched beyond that. Every minute of the game is filled with content which locks you into the screen and makes you wonder what is it going to happen next.

Story (No Spoilers)

You play as a young-adult version of Peter Parker who is experienced in fighting with crime and also working with Doctor Octavius as well as volunteer working at a homeless shelter with her Aunt May.

While having a pretty busy life as Peter Parker, our hero’s Spider-Man life eventually collides with his other life as the crime-rate escalates up with imprisonment of Wilson Grant Fisk as known as Kingpin. With his imprisonment, our hero finds himself fighting with Kingpin’s remaining thugs to make New York peaceful again but on contrary he finds himself in the middle of a war between Kingpin’s thugs and a Chinese terrorist organization called Demons.

While fighting with the each faction, Peter Parker finds himself in an even harder situation with the revealing secrets around him. With the help of his partner Marry Jane Watson and Miles Morales who joins him later on, he fights for doing the right thing at the end which costs him greatly.


Game-play in this game can be divided into 4 categories which are,

  • Main Combat
  • Stealth Missions
  • City-Wide Activities
  • Mini-Games


Main combat in this game revolves around using the right move-set at the right time and wise-selection of skills as you level up your Spider-Man.

There are various

Stealth Missions

City-Wide Activities

When you are slinging around you will stumble upon some



There are various collectibles that are spread through the city and each of them will be available as you progress with your main story. When I speak of collectibles here, I do not limit the term with certain items that can be collected but I include the authentic viewpoints from New York and tokens that can be acquired from completing mini-games. We can list these collectibles as;

  • Backpacks
  • Landmarks
  • Secret


Final Rating


Hello Everyone,

31th of March was a crucial day for the Turkish people as the local elections took place in but this was no ordinary local election in various ways. It was an election of unjust practices and slap to the oppressive government of Turkey.

Unjust Practices


First of all, most of the media organizations were controlled by the government and before the elections they constantly advertised and gave screen time to the pro-government candidates. It is especially sad to see such media organizations like TRT which is the first broadcasting organization of Turkey and CNN Turk which was supposed to promote liberalism fall into the government’s hands. The state of media organizations could be seen below,

But media doesn’t end here, in Istanbul people use public transportation heavily and of course the public transportation is maintained by IBB which is Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Before the elections AKP was in the lead of IBB and they constantly streamed pro-government propaganda on their advertisement screens without mentioning any other parties.

Finally, social media is also considered media and it is heavily used in Turkey. With the huge amount of money, the government put on pro-government advertisements on YouTube as well as smear campaign against the opposition candidates on the same platform. It is shocking that YouTube allowed such alt-right and smear campaigns on their platform but I guess money talks?

Smear Campaign

Before the elections every government organization including the president should have been neutral but that wasn’t the case here. As I mentioned above, there were a lot of smear campaigns on social media and one-sided propaganda for pro-government candidates on the media outlets.

Unfortunately, the president was no way near to being neutral, he made rallies on behalf of the other candidates and even divided his folk into two by calling the opposition as the Zillet İttifakı which means Alliance of Humiliation. He called the opposition and their voters explicitly on his social media account as can be seen below,


The government and its supporters lost major cities in this election but they are in denial and accusing the opposition of cheating the elections. It is ironic that after all these years of unjust practices, they are accusing a weak opposition of accomplishing such a hard task.



Two meanings packed in one word.
Chortle: chuckle + snort
Smog: smoke + fog
Flush: flash + gush

Common Prepositions
Linking verbs
Common Body parts, verbs and kinship

Creating a word without basing it on a previous word.
Kodak, Nylon, Kevlar, Teflon

A typical acronym takes the first sound from each of several words and makes a new word from those initial sounds

If the resulting word is pronounced like any other word it is a *true acronym* such as NASA.
If the letters which make up the acronym are individually pronounced, like TRT, such acronyms are initialisms.
*Reverse Acronyms*
The creators start with a word they want as their name, like MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers), and then they work from those four letters to find four words which represent something like the idea they want to be associated with.

*Creation by Shortening*
Shortening may take any part of a word, usually single syllable, and throw the rest away.

Quiz: inquisitive, Phone: Telephone, Plane: Airplane, Flu: Influenza

The process often applies not just to an existing word, but a whole phrase.

Mob: Mobile vulgus, Zoo: Zoological Gardens

!Back Formations like edit from editor, where the final -or is wrongly analyzed as a suffix and is treated as removable.

Putting two words in a perfectly transparent way, and then various changes take place which cause the compound to lose its transparency.

Airship, Icebox, frogman, hovercraft

*Syntactic Compound*
Formed by regular rules of grammar, like sentences, and they are not, therefore listen in a dictionary.

Shoemaker, bookkeeper, washing machine, candlelight, birdcage, playgoer

*Lexical Compounds*
That are not transparent like the synthetic compounds.

Ice cream, Crybaby, Highlight


*With Affixation*
Derivation consists in making up new words by adding up new words by adding endings to more basic forms of the word.
Mostly these derivations require no special definition or explanation because they follow regular rules.

If the new word can be full comprehended given a knowledge of the meaning of the base and also of the endings, then it is not a new word and should not receive independent dictionary treatment, because just by knowing the parts you also know the whole.

But if the new word is not transparent in that way, then it requires full definition.

Active => Activate, activation, actively, activeness, activity, activism, activist.

Grateful => Disgraceful
Hard => Hardly
*Without Affixation*
Air our opinions
Chair a meeting
Storm the gates
Floor our enemies
Polish the car

Words based on names.
The number of new words of this type in fields like science is very large.

Quite often we take the name of an individual, a character familiar from mythology, history, or folklore…

*Personal names*
Boycott: Charles Boycott, an English land agent in Ireland
Bikini: The islands where the atom bomb was tested; presumably gets its meaning from the style of female native costumes encountered there.
Morphine: Morpheus was the son of the Greek god of Sleep)
*Brand Name*
Tampax: is one of many brands of feminine hygiene devices, generalized to them all.

Words that are supposed to imitate sounds.

Burp, buzz, moo, baa, whack, sniff

In which part or all of a word is repeated.

Fifty-fifty, so-so, boob tube, brain drain


English Literature

Modest Proposal

He was criticise the English government as they were ignoring Irish people and letting this chaotic problem consume them from inside. His criticism is really scientific including scientific research, using numbers, doing the math. He is presenting an argument which proposes babies as food as it would have a beneficial effect on economy, gastronomy and etc. He presents all his arguments in a very reasonable way.

With his disgusting reasonable proposal, he is also criticising his era which is era of reason as when someone solely focuses on reason, that person can think or even do filthy things.

He cared people as individuals not as groups. He may liked Jon but he may hate politicians, lawyers, etc.


Slowly the age of reason left its place to story-telling and stories. Since the first literature of England, the stories were told in verses, proses (French influence) but shortly evolved into novels.

Novels emerged in the 18th century for a variety of reasons. One of the reasons was to give people ability to expresses themselves in the age of reason. Novels are emotional outlet of for the author. In this century, middle-class was rising and their affluence was getting bigger and bigger and due to this they were able to get educated and learn to read, write. First works of novelty were conducted by women but due to society’s norms, they had to hide their names and use the men’s names to conceal themselves and share their work.

Jane Air – Sherlock Ronte, Emily Ronte, Ann Ronte: They wrote novels, each of them and they were really productive but they each used men’s name. When they went to the publishing firm, nobody believed that their literary works were conducted from a woman.

Journalism were becoming widespread, there was prose writing and it was getting more and more popular as well as biographies and there was the effect of puritanism.
Anything related to an individual could be made into a story.

The first English novel was Robinson Cruise written by Daniel Defo, in the novel people read what an indivuaul able to do when he is stuck in a situation, his survival instincts, what he was able to do in order to continue his life, stranded in an island. In the novel he was alone for some time but then he met a person and named him Friday as he met him on Friday. They were friends but they were not equal. People liked this book because even in the most hard situation an individual is able to rise, survive and etc. Later on there were a lot of references to Robinson Cruise such as “What would you do if you were stranded in an island?”

Robinson had to fight his way to make things for his life, to survive and all these required so much energy and strength. He motivated himself to overcome any hardships that may occur. In this work self-reliance was emphasised. (Puritanism).


Samuel Richardson – Pamela

He was an educated man and he was very good in writing letters. He made money out of writing letters, he wrote letters for people in business, for lovers and etc. One day a publishing house made him an offer, they wanted him to write letters and teach how to write letters for certain purposes. As he was doing his job, he realised that out of letters you could make a good story by their correspondence in different settings. He started working on his title called Pamela.

The main character is Pamela, she’s working at a very affluent house but she is very virtuous person despite the son’s advances to her. The son is seducted by her virtuous personality and falls in love with her and they live happily after. The main idea of this novel is importance of virtues. The novel is written in epistolary form (by combining letters).

This novel was criticised by H. Fielding, as the novel was focusing too much on virtues and modesty, so he wrote a novel Calle Josef Andrews, and this character was brother of Pamela. He later on wrote a novel calle Tom Jones which is a comic epic in prose work. This character is a very funny character and he puts himself in very difficult situations, he is a womaniser. Opposing Samuel Richardson, H. Fielding didn’t care about morals.

In novels, picaresque, this style emerged in Spain and it mens series of episodes in prose fiction where the hero is forced to seek his fortune outside of stable society. Imagine there is a family and in this family the father tells his son to go away and find his way, his place. Imagine we have a womaniser character and he has an affair with the married woman and the husband finds out and exiles him from the society.

Tom Jones is built with the picaresque style.


Gulliver’s Travels – J. Swift

  • The book basically asks a question: what sort of thing is man?

Identifying with Gulliver, voyaging through imaginary worlds we try tı find ourselves. Are proud insects, or lords of creation? Brutes, or reasonable beings?

Swift defined man not as a arational animal but as an animal capable of reason. He had a keen sense of our capacity for self delusion folly and vice.
He offers us comic and horrific perspectives, which confront us with unpleasant facets of human life, silently recommending proportion, humility and fellow-feeling.
The way others perceive you will you change what you are, you can be a giant in a place but a midget in another.

In this ship we have this man called Gulliver and he starts a voyage on that ship and he travels to imaginary places.

  • Four imaginary voyages of Lemuel Gulliver, a ship’s surgeon all of which end disastrously among “several remote nations oft he world.”
  • In the first book, Gulliver is shipwrecked in the empire of Lilliput, where he finds himself a giant among diminutive people.
  • In the second, Gulliver is abandoned by his shipmates in Brobdingnag, a land of giants, which appears to be a utopia governed by a human prince.
  • In the third voyage, to flying island of Laputa, Gulliver is together with scientists who are so occupied with their studies that they cannot see what is right in front of them.
  • The final voyage sets Gulliver between a race of horses, Houyhnhnms, who live…


Lawrance Sterne – The life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy

Shandy is a man and this book is about his life story in 9 big divisions of books, but his life story begins in the third book, before that he talks about his parents, society, etc. His life is full of funny incidents and he particularly talks about Uncle Toby

Lawrance had this interesting style, he had an interactive approach as he left some blanks in his books for you to fill them. Such as when he is descrpiting a beatiıful woman he leaves the desrictpion blank and expects you to write it. The book is written in a witty way accompanied with strange stylistic approaches.


Samuel Johnson – Dictionary of the English Language

The first dictionary of English and it represents the ideology of its era. In this dictionary Samuel Johnson passed his judgment into his work and defined words with his perspective. It is also important that how the vocabulary has changed over time.

Every age has its ideal concept of ideal man and in the age of reason, the ideal man is the person who uses his intelligence but one can not deny the fact that humans have emotions, too and after the age of era, there it comes

The Romantic Era.

English Literature

Defoe was a journalist, before he was novelist and he practice journalism and his very famous journal was about a very horrible set of events, a period which actually ruined a lot of things for the English people. This plague caused a lot of deaths and this man wrote a journal which was titled The journal of the plague year, in that journal, normally a journalist would report what is happening but this journal was in almost in the form of a diary, it was called a journal because there was no certain dates and this man did more than a journalist do when he would report a horrible disease. Normally a journalist report a situation like this starting from how it started, how many people have it killed so far, how it is contagious but Defoe took a different approach to this and he wrote about how horrible the event was but he looked psychological aspect, he looked at the social aspect, he talked about how horrified people become, how paranoid that become after the disease, how upset they were, how they didn’t trust anyone and what they felt about the origin of this disease. (17th cent)

After the restoration there was still puritan ideas that were alive in that century and such ideas fed the flame of divine punishment idea of the plague.

Pypes wrote daily entries – Defoe didn’t.
Pypes wrote about everything from his daily life to what he ate – Defoe didn’t focus on these but the disease itself and its effects.


The introduction starts with personal word choices which is contrary to general newspaper language.


Alexander Pope

A very important figure and representative writer in the 18th century. He was a catholic, he wasn’t actually allowed to do a lot of things when he was young, catholics were not nicely received and this man born into a catholic family although he had some good education he was not allowed show himself in the field he was working on, when he started writing in his youth at the age of 25 he established himself as a writer all these facts. He was mostly known for his work Rape of the Lock and Essay of Man

Essay on man

Despite its title, it is more of a poem than it is an Essay, which makes it an Epistle which means a letter which gives news. He believed in order of things, in the universe there was a grand order and everything that is alive and exists has a place in this order and he wanted to talk about this order and he mostly wanted to talk about the place of man in this order. Although this work is not in letter form as it is in verse form, it was still called an essay.

He is known for his heroic coplet, he was very skilful in expressing an idea expressing it in two lines and emphasising it.

He says “do not judge God” and emphasizes on finding ourselves by knowing ourselves. He says do not study God, do not presume what you can’t understand, know your place and study mankind, its limitations, its capabilities and etc.

This essay contains definition of the Man.

He is defining, men is in the middle of order of things, the god is at the top and animals are at the bottom. Man is darkly wise, a man can be wise and plan very harmful things unlike animals without free will and whatever God does, he cannot be labeled as bad. Man hangs between in doubt to himself and the beasts. Man is between to act or to rest. Man doesn’t know which choose, whether to choose mind or the beast (desires). Man is born to die and he has a talent of reasoning but he can make errors. He states that man was created half to rise and half to fall. Man is the glory but he is also a riddle, why does a human being does the things he does. Man is between his heart and his mind. He is talking about rising but as he man rises his guiding companion should be science. He also states that do not follow the people who imitate the god. Discover yourself, engage with yourself, not with the things that you can not understand. You would be amazed to discover what you are made of.


18th Century

  • While 17th century was the age of political dnd religious conflict, 18th centıry was tea ge of stability.
  • The age was characterised by a rational, scientific and secular attitude to life. Social laws (like universal laws) depended on reason and order. The age rejected intuition and mysticism.
  • The dominant intellectual attitude was empiricism (knowledge comes from experience) – direct observation of experience (John Locke’s argument of “tabula rasa”)
  • The key philosophy of The age is Deism, which united all men under one God and brotherhood. The deists argued that god revealed himself in nature rather than in books.
  • God is the supreme Architect, The Great Reason, The Great mathematician who built a relational universe for the benefit of man.
  • God is benevolent and his laws are kind and for the goodness of man.

Mind > Ruling powers of the 18th Century

Emotions > These are limited as they were seen harmful due to the harmful experience of the 17ht century

  • Concept of man: Man is a limited creature but he is perfectible because he has faculty of reason. He is no longer corrupt beyond repair because of the Fall (from Paradise).


The Rape of the Lock

The rape here is used in a metaphorical way and it is mocking the Epic genre. This is an example of mocking Epic. This work makes fun of all of the Epic features. The situation here is based on real events

    * Was written as an attempt to end a quarrel between two families. The quarrel had started when Lord Peter cut off a lock of hair, which he wished to “possess”, from the had of Miss Arabelle Fermor, the lady to whom he was engaged.
    * Pope wrote the poem in mock-epic style, in imitation of Homer, to “make a jest” of the indecent and to laugh with the two families.

He wanted to end this quarrel, so he wrote this mocking-epic story. He made these characters supernatural such as Belinda’s power of nymphs flying around her. He exaggerated everything such as Belinda’s beauty.

It is a poetry and this work is divided into Cantos which is a derived style from Italy. Throughout the work, Pope wants us to see idleness of the British people at that time, their foolishness and wasting the time away with various meaningless acts. People were snorting snuff which is a drug that is smelled and gives a good feeling.

Belinda is a thot who wants fame.

In epics some kind of narrator appears and warns you that everything is going to change.

With this work we see the element of “laughter”, he is making fun of English idleness. Here Pope is trying to make a point, he is saying that English people’s lives are very idle and meaningless and this led to a new genre which is called Satire.


Jonathan Swift – Modest Proposal

Swift detected a very important problem in Irish society.Ireland at the time was neglected, suppressed and English did not care about Irish. A population got out of control and there was not enough food to eat, there were horrible rulers and Ireland wasn’t doing good. Swift, he was an Irish and a weird man, he had interesting ideas, he saw that Irish had to help themselves and this problem that affected everything in Ireland, swift felt that something had to be done and he wrote a modest proposal. He chose to write in a satire genre because in this proposal he suggested eating babies, he stated there were way too many of them. The way he is doing it very scientific and logical, he presents it as a reasonable offer.

Theory of Competence

Pioneers of in the conception of competence,

  1. Saussure – Language vs Parole – Structuralism
  2. Chomsky – Competence vs Performance – Transformative – Generative Grammar
  3. Hymes – Communicative Competence

Language and Parole

Language is a system of science, from the smallest units such as phonemes and to largest unit text, all these are system and they are interrelated with each other.

Language is underlying knowledge of the language including grammar rules, but parole is the actual ability to use the language. So, knowledge and ability are different object from perspective of

We can say that structuralism, linguistics is a theory of language.

Competence vs Performance


According to him, linguistic is a theory of competence not performance. As Chomsky defined language and competence. Here when we say linguistic theory is primary about the language, the term language refers to the competence and it is focused on the ideal speaker-hearer as known as native-speaker in a completely homogenous speech community which means full of similar types of native-speakers who have got similar level of competence and they know know their language perfectly and unaffected by the sociocultural factors.

Ideal Hearer-Speaker

This description defines competence according to Chomsky and again his theory was a theory of competence and this kind of defines or describe a similar way of competence for a homogenous community which was later got criticised by Hymes and other functionalist applied linguistics and later on due to his ideological choices such as narrowing the perfect speaker to native levels and ignoring sociocultural factors and assuming all this happens in a homogenous community.

Communicative Competence

According to Funcitonal school linguistic theory performance is about competenc.

Whatever you perform linguistically you perform it with your competence and that’s way since this we don’t have any distinction between Competence and Performance because each of them depend on each other.

What you are able to say reflects both your competence and performance.


Systemic – Functional Grammar

M.A.K. Halliday

In order to understand systemic functional grammar we should define language according to this theory.

According to functionalism, a language is a social semiotic. Semiotic is actually a system of science. When we say it is a social semiotic, we mean language is a system of science to express the social meaning.

Systemic: Refers to the options that are available to us to make meaning in given contexts.

We have choices to make in 3 interrelated levels

  1. Level of behaviour: we make a choice to behave linguistically or non-linguistically. Because you can choose between two in such situations.
  2. Level of Semantics: What to say? What is the semantic meaning
  3. Level of Grammatical: We decide or choose how to say what to say.

These choices we make at this 3 interrelated levels do not occur consequently and most of they do not consciously. Because, when you encounter communicate situations, the words just come out very automatically most of the time but actually behind it we go through these levels.

!When we are learning a foreign language, on the other hand we operate these levels very consciously and make these decisions by ourselves!

Functional: These choices we make occur in a functional context.

As we grow up we acquire the language within the systematic and functional competence. That’s how we are able to communicate and we do have shared meaning which makes the communication possible.


Linguistic Form vs Communicative Function

Do your homework, please! – Imperative and Request

According to structure each form reflect a perticual function. Structural theories do not highlight function because form are integrated with functions anyway.

Functionalism says that there is no one to one correspondence between form and function and you can realise one communicative function by revising linguistics forms.

Context, different linguistic forms acquire different functions according to their use of in their context.

Functionalism is nota theory which excludes linguistic forms.

Formal (Structuralism + Transformative-Generative Grammar)

formal theories of language derived from …

They describe and analyse languages in terms of their formal strategies.

Halliday, Basic Functions

These seven basic functions are turned into meta-functions which are 3 in number. These seven basic functions are about child language acquisition and meta one is about adult languag use.

Under each meta functions, there are general communicative functions and there are specific communicative functions.

One of the three meta functions is interpersonal metafiction use of language, establish and maintain meanings. Under interpersonal meta-functions

  1. Instrumental Function: The kid’s using the language as in instrument of giving things. So kid says something to get something.
  2. Regulatory Function: The kids using the language to regulate or to control the behaviour of others.
  3. Interecational Function: Here language is used to create interaction with others. Such as a kid asking to be friends with someone to play with.
  4. Personal Function: Is about using the language to express identity and feelings at the personal level. Such as expressing likes and dislikes, saying his/her name.
  5. Heuristic Function: Heuristic means enabling someone to learn and discover. Is the use of language by kids to learn and discover. Such as kids asking what is it?
  6. Imaginitave Function: Using language to create a world of imagination. For example a kid playing with the toys he imagines and gives them names, makes 10/10 imdb movies inside his head.
  7. Representational Function: Using the language to communicate and convey facts and factual information.

We grow up

  1. Ideational meta-function : Is about the linguistic resources we have for constructing experiences. The relationship between human and the world, anything. When you talk about events, states, feelings, anything that is about your relationship between the world is ideational
  2. Interpersonal meta-Function: Social relationships. The point is to establish and maintain social relationships. This is the functions which we use to create any kind of relationship.
  3. Textual meta-Function: Can be seen as combination of the above. Because the first one is about relatiosbhip between the person and world and the second one is about the relationship between him and other persons and this textual function is combining them together. By text it is not only paper but it can be oral too such as Lectures.

Wilkins, is a british applied linguistic, how to map the language other than the traditional concepts of grammar and vocabulary to teach. For this purpose, he talks about functions and notions.

In document there was a huge list of General C.F. and Specific C.F.. Here we see socialisation for the general communicative functions, and ….

He also talked about notions, notions refer to semantical, grammatical categories. In this way when they are combined, Semantics and Grammar are combined together.

As a specific communicative function you can think about to express daily routines.

Temporal Notion:

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Time
    Spatial Notion:
  • location

What matters is the use of these functions and notions in the context. We don’T use grammar for the sake of grammar but we use it to express these notions and functions. So the grammar falls back to the second.

CLT can be divided into two

CLT Strong Version: We use the languae to use the language. There is no difference between using and learning, you learn the language by using it, without learning the language it is impossible to speak it.

Weak Ctl: Has a communicative perspective on language which means it has got a communicative perspective on what to teach. Aims to teach different communicative functions but it does not emphasise on how to learn it, here the end and the means may differ. Such approaches could be called CLT based approaches.
Strong CLT: Communicative perspective on learning. So this is more about how to teach. This means learning language through communicating and language is also communication, the end and the means are the same here.


It is not as presrciptive as a method but it used to be.

Prescriptive methods and their importance started to decrease after 2000s and later on CLT transformed into an Approach after this date.

Methadological Era

Conceptionalizon Communicative Competence Hymes communicative competence did have main components which are

  1. Possibility
  2. Feasibliltiy
  3. Acceptibality
  4. Appropriatenes

In the original conceptiulzation by

Canale and Swein: They stick to the conceptituzaliton by Hymes but they updated it to some extend. They stated that there are 4 components,

  1. Grammatical Competence: It refers to the knowledge of all linguistic units including syntax, semantics, lexicology, phonology, grammar. All the linguistic code features make up the grammatical competence.
  2. Socio-Linguistic Competence: We refer to knowledge of contextually appropriate language use. We should be able to making/using sentences in the right context and with the right accuracy. We acquire this competence at the same time with the grammatical competence. Especially significant, in order to make and receive and make sense of illocutionary sentences we use grammatical and socio-linguistic competence.
  3. Discourse Competence: Discourse is the largest meaningful object of the language. Any discourse is coherent and makes it is coherent and cohesion. Cohesion is achieved in the context, it is unity of the text such as when a person utters a illocutionary sentence and the other one gets the message that means that there is cohesion.Coherence is mainly about relationship among the utterances such as how they are bind together. Coherence and cohesion are the main elements of what makes a discourse a discourse. They help us to understand utterances in a discourse by connecting them together. Discourse competence refers to knowledge of achieving coherence and cohesion.
  4. Strategic Competence: More about communication stragetigs that we use to keep the conversation nor communication more effective to avoid misıunderstaning or six the misundetstahings or two avoid comuıncation breakdown or fix it. It is not about second language bu it is about language in general. If you for example just paraphrase your main points to make the conversation possibility go on, than this is a communication strategy. These are more about repairing or making the communication go on. Without this competence the communication will be blocked, won’t go smoothly or experience breakdowns. For example when you say something but the receiver doesn’t understand you try to convey the same message in a different way and this is a communicative strategy, too. Circumlocution* is defining a word in a different way to express it.

Canale and Swein takes feasibility as something as universal, excluding it from communicative competence and saying that we acquire it naturally, it is given.

We expect to main things in the classroom,

  • We as teachers need to do activities or teaching practices which aim to increase four of all these compteneecties but some of the activities my focus on various activities at the same time but when there’s an increase in one of the competences we expect to see increase in other ones too. If only one competency is invested all the time and the others are ignored , awe can’t say the same thing of course.

If we compare this with Hymes’, there similarities and differences

  1. GC is similar to Possibility
  2. SLC is similar to Appropriateness
  3. DC isn’t similar to Feasiblility
  4. DC is a part of Appropriateness and Acceptibaliyty


CLT expects teachers to make meaningful activities and situations.


Celee-Murcia (1995)

  1. Linguistic Competence:
  2. Sociocultural Competence: The cultural background knowledge needed to interpret and use a language effectively.
  3. Actional Competence:
  4. Discourse Competence: –
  5. Strategic Competence: –

2 + 3 = Sociolinguistic Competence

Common European Framework for Languages

  1. Linguistic Competence:
  2. Sociolinguistic Competence:
  3. Pragmatic Competence: Combines discourse competence and strategic competence.

Celce-Murcia (2008)

  1. L
  2. S
  3. D
  4. S
  5. Formulaic Competence: Knowledge of those faces and orefactivated chucks of language that speakers use heavily in everyday interactions, such as routines, collocations, idioms, and lexical frames. Referring to the knowledge of those frequently used chucks or utterances without necessarily grammatical elements which enables you to survive in basic manners.
  6. Interactional Competence
    1. Actional Competence:
    2. Conversational Competence:
    3. Non-verbal/paralinguistic competence: