Why Not?

Why not?

Years have passed since The Arab Spring, yet the Syrian Civil War is still ongoing. Since the civil war, according to article on www.sozcu.com, which refers to the statement of Minister of Interior, 3.551.078 immigrants have fled to Turkey and they are spread around the cities, trying to survive in these lands. How heroic and merciful we are to accept a horde of immigrants for the sake humanity, for the heritage of ours from Ottoman Empire and for the facade.

Our humanity persisted and those refugees accommodated on our lands for years, they were eligible to get assistance from our government and humanitarian aids. They took free education, free salary, places to accommodate but nothing to give in return. The things have changed for them but not for their country and not for us, the Syrian War is still continuing and Turkish armed forces are still operating on those foreign lands but for what? For nothing? Isn’t there a reward to our heroic facade? We should be commemorated and paid back for our humanitarian acts.

Now I will offer you what you deserve, what I deserve and what our nation deserves. As the report states that there are over 3.000.000 refugees in Turkey and we can use them as resources such as suicide soldiers to assist our soldiers on foreign soils, visceral farms to harvest their visceral for helping those who are in need of organ transplant. We can conduct scientific tests on them improve our knowledge and reach far beyond our competitors, we can train them from youth to serve us as slaves for various purposes from house cleaners to assist our beloved women to sex slaves to serve our hard working men, they would have no aim in life but to serve.

By using them as suicide soldiers we may be able to drastically reduce soldier death ratio of ours as well as increasing mission success percentage due to acceptable casualties, by using them as visceral farming spots we may help our citizens who are in need of certain internal organs and speed up the process of organ transplant, by using them as test subjects we may speed up our researches and let ourselves braver than before, by using them as slaves we may let household focus on more crucial tasks and by using them as sex slaves we may let our men steam off on them and focus on crucial tasks without their wild desires.

Overall, such a valuable resource is going in vain. By taking the action we can turn a burden into a living resource that would help us in various ways.

Musa Kaan Durmuş

Disclaimer: This work was supposed to be disgusting and point out that reason by itself should be dangerous. I am not backing up any ideas here, please don’t take anything out of the context.

Inspired Work: A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift

Paradise on Earth

Paradise on Earth

I woke up and looked around me with thrill. There was nothing but dried trees, nothing but plain soil, there was no light around me, it was night. I got up and started walking aimlessly, walking through trees only to find other trees. It was like a maze, a never ending maze and I was trapped in it with no idea. I was thrilled and anxious, I was hearing footsteps but couldn’t see anything, I had no choice but go onward into the unknown.

As I walked onward time went by and I finally found myself in a square with nothing in it. The ground was made of stones but they were untouched for years, wild plants were erecting through their gaps and soil was eager to conceal the rest. I looked up and saw the moon, the guiding moonlight in pitch black darkness. I lost my focus and kept looking at the moon, I had no thoughts but the moon in my mind and it got bigger and bigger. The moon wasn’t only on the arch now but it was in my eyes and mind as well. I closed my eyes involuntarily and woke up.

I was in my bed next to my beautiful wife, she was sleeping peacefully. I looked around me and tried to get over the shock of the horrific nightmare and I did. It was just a nightmare and now after horror I was in my bed next to my beloved, feeling her soft and warm skin on mine, making me calm and filled with love. I kissed her hand and got on my foot and head towards kitchen to prepare breakfast for my family. As I was passing through the aisle I saw my son and daughter playing a game on television, they looked cheerful and we greeted each other. As I went into the kitchen I sat on a chair and thought about the nightmare, how horrific it was but all that horror was gone, I was in my home with my family , on a calm Sunday morning preparing breakfast with various food.

30 minutes ago I was stuck in my dream and when I woke up, I actually woke up to my actual dream in life, the place I ever wanted to be, the source of my happiness and serenity, I was with my family in our little house, my love on the bed, kids are cherishing each other and me preparing breakfast with variety. The horror I experienced made me realize how happy I am, how that exact time I was experiencing the paradise on earth. I didn’t have to look anywhere else, I just had to realize I was living it after all.

Musa Kaan Durmuş

Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 | 16/04/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

How about assessing task difficult that is what makes a tack easier or more difficult than another task.

Task Difficulty

  • Cognitive level
  • Language complexity
    • Existence of hard grammar structures, new word density, use of high frequency and low frequency words
  • Accessibility
    • Subject Familiarity, but it does not come just with the topic, so there is this issue of topic familiarity.
    • Task familiarity, if they regularly do a task, they would get used to it and perform better but if you present them a new task.

As teachers, ask these questions to yourself

  • Why am I doing this task with the learners?
    • What is my purpose in doing this task?
      • You should focus either focus on accuracy, fluency or complexity.
  • What is the content of the task?
    • Drawing familiar or unfamiliar information.
    • To what extent they are familiar with the given content.
  • How is the task to be carried out?
    • Will there be planning before doing the task.
    • Should I give them planning time or should I ask immediate answers.
  • In what situation is the task to be carried out?
    • Will it be monologic or diologic?

Task Adaption is preparing the students to the task from the pre-task stage to make it easier for them.

Less structured information tasks = More creativity in the process.

Task Dimensions and Task Difficulty

  • Code Complexity
    • Linguistic complexity and variety.
    • Vocabulary load and variety.
    • Redundancy and density.
  • Cognitive Complexity
    • Cognitive Familiarity
      • Familiarity of topic and its predictability.
      • Familiarity of discourse genre.
      • Familiarity of task.
    • Cognitive Processing
      • Information organising.
      • Amount of computation.
      • Clarity and sufficiency of information given.
      • Information time.
  • Communicative Stress
    • Time limits and time pressure.
    • Speed of presentation.
    • Number of participants.
    • Length of texts used Type of response.
    • Opportunities to control interaction.


Foster & Skehan

  • …Being able to assess a task’s difficult is crucial to understating how it might be performed
  • Knowing what demands the task will make opens up the possibility of using task design to manipulate learners…


  • …in the case of tasks designed for language learning or teaching purposes, performance ,s concerned both kWh meaning and the way meanings are comprehended, expressed andengotiated.
  • A changing başance need to be established between attention to meaning and form, fluency and accuracy in the overall selection and sequencing of tasks so that both task performance and language learning process


* Is confident about the task
* Is motivated to carry out the task
* Has necessary prior learning experiences
* Can learn at pace required
* Has necessary

    * Low cognitive complexity
    * Has few steps
    * Plenty of context provided
    * Plenty of help available
    * Does not require grammatical accuracy
    * Has as much time as necessary

Text / Input
    * Is short, not dense (few facts)
    * Clear presentation
    * Plenty of contextual clues
    * Familiar, everyday content




Text / Input


Task Demands

Cognitive Demands
    * Degree of contextualisation of language; difficult of concepts that re needed to do the task.
        * Use of graphics, colours, telling the time…

Language Demands
    * Whether the language is spoken or written, understanding or production, extended talk or conversation; vocabulary and grammar need, the genre, the amount of L1 and L2

Interactional Demands
    * Type of interaction required.
        * Group work, pair work, the participants in talk, the future of interaction. 

Metalinguistic Demands
    * The use of technical terms about langue in production or comprehension.

Involvement Demands
    * The ease or difficulty the learner has in engaging with the task; legs of task stages, links to child’s interest and concerns.

Physical Demands

* How long the child sits still for; actions needed, motor skills needed.


Abstract things are always more difficult than concrete things.

Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 | 09/04/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

TBLT follows task-cycle, in the task cycle there is preliminary introduction from the teacher that may be introduction of the task or the topic, there are mini-introduction required for the task.

Learners usually engage in pair or group work. First of all students plan how to make the task, then they work on task and finally then they report their conclusion. When this stage is over the stage of language focus comes which is solely focused on practicing lacking language skills.

Meaningful purpose exists in the tasks in which we replicate the real life events.
A reasonable input to act upon. It means that the kinds of input into task-cycle such as instructions.
Language outcome
Optimal level of difficulty, it shouldn’t be more difficult than cognitive development of the learner.

Material Selection Criteria (1st Phase)

  1. Exploitability: Make sure you choose such material but it really gives you chance to different types of tasks by the same topic and same material.
  2. Topic (Variety): Topic has to be a motivated one but at the same time related to real life concerns and make you sure that you include variety to topic selections.
  3. Length: It’s always good to choose a material that can be handled in chunks. If it’s not designed that way that may harm their feel of accomplishment, by completing series of chunks they will feel accomplished.
  4. Linguistic Complexity: If you focus on teaching on new vocabulary, it should be toned down. If it’s optimum it will give students to take a chance and respond.
  5. Accessibility: Can they really respond or would they really know about the given topic. It is mostly about content knowledge and familiarity.
  6. Copyright
  7. Motivation

Tasks (2nd Phase)

  1. Purpose
  2. Input
  3. Outcome
  4. Optimum Level of Difficulty

Task Difficulty (3rd Phase)

  • ———


Level of the leaners: B1
Class Population: 20


  • First of all the teacher greats the students and asks them how are they vaguely. After that the teacher tells his students that he has brought some brochures and asks them to divide in groups of four lastly distributes brochures to the students.
  • After the distributions phase, the teacher asks the students to guess what are these brochures, what could they be about, what are their purpose etc. (brainstorming)
  • When the brainstorming phase is over the teacher asks his students if they ever participated in such activities, if they did they he would ask them some volunteers to narrate their experiences or if no one has ever participated in such an activity, the teacher tells his story (anectods)


  • After the pre-task stage, the teacher asks his students to stay in groups of four decide upon an outdoor activity business. Upon deciding their business they are going to design their own business brochures for advertisement purposes regarding the previously given brochures as the input material. (Media Projects)


  • Upon finishing their brochures, they will advertise their business by presentation of their brochures.



  • Form groups of 4 and inspect the given brochures. Discuss what could be purpose of these brochures. Have you ever participated in such outdoor activities, if you did narrate your memory to the class.


  • In groups of four, inspect the given brochures again and then discuss and decide upon an outdoor business. Imagine that you are responsible for advertisement and design a brochure for your business regarding the previously given brochures in the sense of layout, language and informative value.


  • After designing your advertisement brochures, present them to the class and advertise your business according to the points you have made on your brochure.

Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 |12/03/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Life-long Learning

Joint Learning Enterprise

  • Always taking responsibility to learn
  • Revising your procedures on a life time span
  • Learner autonomy is extremely important. You can not invest on lifelong learning whiteout autonomy.
  • Self-Assessment
  • Reflective learning


  • Social networking is important for language learning.
  • Cooperative Learning – Teaching: teachers working together for the same classes.

If we know the desired outcomes for using that IT technology, it is useful

Action Research

  • The researchers are Teachers + Students
  • Mini self assasseemnt form after the tests and measure the results and identify the problems in order to improve and solve problems which is a very valuable way building a good relationship with the student, progressive teaching and a very indispensable part of the action research is autonomy.
  • Teacher and student cooperation but also it is not something that has to be employed once, if it does that way it would only be a lecture.

In service education

First of all clerification of terminology is very important.

Approach: About our initial question, the way you define language, the way you define. Approach is this understanding of this Lanague learning teaching
Method: The roadmap- plan but it is not just the activity sheets. Aims, specific objectives, teaching content (syllabus), materials, specific procedures and techniques, assessment and evaluation
Process: What do no now and what to do next, how do you things
Technique: Depens on the need and applies on the specific situation.

Within the approach you can use various methodologies

Designer methods: Who created that method would come up with a name. Method if it comes to that point, method is usually used in a very clarified, everything is defined such as Audolingual method, Suggestopedia

Post method: there is no one particular defined method


Audio lingual: structuralism

Sytagmatic: you know what words will come in an order
Paradicmatic: you know which item to take out and put another one instead of it

Drills are widely used

Approach to learning is behaviourism,: if you give a stimulus and get a correct respond you gotta continue.

Errors are not tolerate, importance on accuracy


TPR is a technique

Silent Way:


Structural Syllabus: Collection of forms and sturductres usually grammatical of the language being taught
Notinal Syllabus: Collection of the functions that re performed when language is used. Notions that is used to express.
Situational Syllabus: Collection of real or imaginary situations in which language occurs or is used.
Skill Based Syllabus: Collection of specific abilities that may play a part in using language.
Task Based Syllabus: Series of complex and purposeful tasks that the students want or need to perform with the language they are learning.
Content Based Syllabus: Some content or information different from language.

Constructivism (Yapılandırmacı)

  • Knowledge can not be taught but must be constructed by the learner.
  • Constructivist approaches describe how people transform and organise reality according to common intellectual principles as a result of interactions with the environment.
    • You attract meaning to experience depending on the interaction with the environment.
    • It is experience based learning.
  • Effective learning begins from the learner’s active participation in the process of learning.
    • Learners need to be involved in decisions about the content and processes of learning.
      • You should allow space for autonomy.

    You can not teach a notion but you can show ways of it.

    Constructive Approaches to Learning

    • Human brain is not simply a “mental” or “cognitive” apparatus, but is actually a social organ. (Pool 1997)
    • Following a social constructivist view of learning, Human beings create their own notion of reality and give meaning to it through the filtering of their experiences and perceptions in social contexts.
    • The learners should be encouraged to process information, make comparisons, construct knowledge and make critical judgements.

    Learning in Constructivist Classrooms

    • Primary resources are used in the classroom.
      • Authentic (texts that are not produced for the learners)
    • Experiential learning is integrated into the classroom.
    • The lessons build on students’ prior knowledge.
      • Their background knowledge. (You start from what they already know)
    • Constructivist learning is integrated into collaborative and cooperative learning activities.
    • Hands-on activities are integrated into the curriculum.
      • Related to experiential learning
    • Classroom learning is dynamic, ever-changing, evolving, reflective, enquiry-based.

    A Construvisit Frmae for Language Classes

    Initiating U Constructing U Utilising

    1. Connect what they know with the new information. Always dig deeper.
    2. Reengaging it, learning by doing it
    3. Outside of the classroom such as projects

    Cubing Activities


    Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 | 19/02/2019

    Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

    What does it mean to know a language

    1972 A linguistic went to Warsaw and from morning to night the tv was open, he walked the streets, went to the cafes but did he manage to speak the language? No, he didn’t.

    It is not just a matter of exposure but quality exposure. Just exposure is not enough to learn a language and if you are just investing on receptive skills, your productive skills will be held back.

    The best way to learn a language is to contextualize the learning. What is contextualizing?

    That is use of language but on domains, you in a way define what possible intentions, who, where, etc. who is talking to who

    People who are engaged in communication are Called interlecuaters.

    They are talking about what?

    One of the golden things about ELT is contextualizing.

    Authentic language means a language that is not adapted for educational purposes, just the real life communication.

    Content-based approach to Language is best way to teach a language, you should bring different materials for your classes.

    Hearing, speaking, reading, writing, > all these integrated Hallstic Teaching.

    If you are talking about communication there needs to be integration among those skills and you have to priotorize holistic teaching.

    From the very first lesson of words what you have to do is let people read something respond to it, discuss about it and take notes and share it with others as well as listen to their notes.

    (Even note taking is a writing activity)

    What does it mean to know a language?


    1. Lexicon: voabulary
    2. Syntax: what are the rules


    The tone the style which suits that particular situation.

    Frozen register: Military, airport announcements


    It has to be with socio-linguistic competence that means dictionaries can’t help you.


    Corpus measures the kinds of words that are used by native speakers of the language in a time.

    Corpora – High frequency words – Low frequent words

    Phonemes to Morphemes to Words to Phrases to Clauses to Sentence to Paragraphs…. So you need to know about discourse and discourse means organization of the language.

    Morphemes are meaningful meanwhile Phonemes are just sounds.

    Coherence – Cohesion (Bağdaşıklık, Bağlaşıklık)

    Cohesion: Which words are indicators

    Genre is a cultural item, because the community decides upon it. For example kız istemek.

    We need to know how language functions, what is the speaker meaning, it is knowing about Pragmatics (Edin dili) and it is definitely different from semantics,

    Paralinguistic elements that are non-verbal elements

    Concordance: the ability to come together as words such as HAVALAR ısındı


    Dynamic: language is not static, it constanstly changes.

    When we speak languages


    Languaging: Language is a verb, taking action, reflecting world. It is a process and it’s not only verbal but it also requires non-verbal aspects such as music, science etc. Multimodel Language: Use of multimodal research, using more than semiotic source, we use sound, visual, color, background, angle etc.


    Comprehensiblity > accuracy

    English Teaching Methods – 2 | 03/05/2019


    Language use and Interaction in the classroom

    What is and What Should

    • If teaching equals to learning, our job would have been very easy but it doesn’t.

    Significance of Classroom Interaction

    • Classroom interaction contributes to language development by providing target language practice opportunities
    • Interaction is language learning. Ot is not merely the process whereby linguistic knowledge is practiced, but rather the process whereby linguistic knowledge, and linguistic ability, are themselves developed.
    • We need to provide opportunities use the language in the classroom and classroom interaction then becomes learning.
    • If the CLT or TBLT is the theoretical background, when you apply them by planning your lessons, usually we don’T expect to see any kind of mismatch.
    • If the major classroom interaction conducted by the teacher we can not define this class in the standards of TBLT and CLT.
    • We should also underline the education system and act according to learners’ age and personalities.
    • We plan our lessons and when we try to act up on the plan, it results in classroom interaction and this classroom interaction could be conflictual or cooperative.
    • Teach the students, not the plan!
      • Your plan might be excellent but if it doesn’t work out, if you sense that it is not working out, one of the very bad choices is sticking to your plan. We are in the classroom not to teach the plan but to teach to students.
      • Students will resist your plans because they are not used to it. In the traditional teaching context, when you try do communicative or intentional plan you might encounter negative feedback from especially the elder learners.
      Take these into consideration
      • Age
      • Personality
      • Language
      • Educational background

    On the spot decisions vs Planning Decisions

    • If you feel that your lesson plan isn’t working out in the class, you have to do on-the-spot decisions which are spontaneous decisions regarding the situation.

    Classroom Interaction

    • Teachers plan their lessons by making selections with regard what teach (syllabus), how to teach (method), and perhaps also to the nature of the social relationships they want tot encourage (atmosphere). When acted on, their plans result in classroom interaction.
    • Action by the teacher, reaction by the students, this is how classroom interaction is created. Teacher by himself cannot control the classroom interaction as its a two way interaction.
    • It is not panned in advance, it is co-produced with learners.
    • It reflects the pedagogic decisions that have been taken, and all revolves as part of the process accomplishing it.

    Teacher Controlled Classroom Interaction = Initiation – Response – Evaluation (I-R-E)

    • Usually it is not authenticity.
    • Little to no contextualisation.
    • Teacher to Students interaction, no communication among the students.
    • Teacher centred classes.

    The Teacher Allocated the turns by

    • Nominating
    • Signalling
    • Eye gaze
      Then selected students responds/reads her answer
      The teacher finally evaluates student’s response usually through repletion into case of a correct answer.

    Teacher: What time is it? (Initiation)
    Students: It’s 2 o’clock. (Response)
    Teacher: Good. It’s 2 pm. (Evaluation)

    Features of Teacher-Controlled Classroom Interaction

    • One-speaker-at-a-time rule rather than many-at-once.
    • Reluctance allow overlapping/simultaneous talk.
    • Rigid turn control by teacher.
    • Restriction of learners to a responding role.
    • Control of the content and direction of class-work by teacher.
    • Prevalence of teacher questioning.

    Whole-Class Teaching

    • The teacher directs the whole class and usually in this way, the interaction is one way, students cannot speak until the teacher allows them too. Disadvantages
      * It is teacher-dominated, with little opportunity for active students participation.
      * Teacher stand to interact with only a small number of students int he class.
      * Teacher Action Zone: In each class there are some bright students and those students sit in the particular places in the class and opposites would sit at the back. In the whole class teaching teachers intend to communicate with the students who are seated in his action zone.
      * It assumes that all students can proceed at the same pace. However, slower students may be lost, and brighter students may be held back. Advantages
      * It enables the teacher to teach large numbers of students at the same time.
      * It can serve as a preparation for subsequent activities which can be completed individually or in groups.

    Individual Work

    • When the students individually do some activity such as worksheet, this is called individual work.

    Functional Distribution of Teacher Talk

    • Questioning/Eliciting
      • Any act designed produce verbal response from students.
    • Responding
      • To another speaker’s contributions/utterances
    • Presenting/Explaining
      • Any act presenting information of direct relevance to the learning task.
    • Organising/Giving Instructions
      • Any act which serves structure the learning task without contributing to the learning task itself.
    • Evaluating/Correcting
      • Any act which rates another verbal act positively or negatively.
    • Sociating
      • Any act contributing tot he establishment or maintenance of classroom rapport.
    • Directing
      • Any act encouraging non-verbal activity as an integral part of the teaching/learning task.

    English Teaching Methods – 2 | 26/04/2019


    1. Listing
    2. Matching
    3. Problem Solving
    4. Creative Tasks/Projects
    5. Sharing Personal Experiences

    Classroom Procedure

    • Pre-Task
      • You make an introduction to the topic.
      • In addition, we are kind of expected to activate the students’ background knowledge.
      • If necessary, we can also do some small mini-tasks which will prepare the students to the main task.
    • Task-Cycle
      • Task
        • Your main task should have an observable outcome for the stage of Planning and Reporting.
      • Planning
        • Planning of reporting.
      • Reporting
        • Reporting the outcome of the task
    • Language Focus
      • Analysis and Practice Activities
        • We are expected to focus more on form.
        • Most of the time activities are more controlled and more form focused.
        • Because our purpose is a communicative function what we need to keep in mind is, if there is no one to one correspondence, we can think of activities to establish it.

    Level: B1
    Age: 15-16
    Class Population: 20

    Goal: Presenting and exchanging information.
    Input: Combination different Vlogger’s videos about unique cafes around the globe as well as their such cafes advertisement brochures.
    Activity: Listing (Brainstorming), Ordering-Sorting (Ranking), Sharing Personal Experiences (Anecdotes), Creative Tasks (Media Projects)
    Setting: Groups of Four
    Learners Roles: Contextualised businesspeople, advertising and designing.
    Teacher Roles: Instructing before hand and observing in the process.


    • Teacher greets students and asks how are they feeling that day.
    • After greeting, he proceeds to ask if the students go cafes in their times and if they go what kind of cafes they go.
    • Students talk about their personal experiences and later on teacher says that there many different kind of cafes around the world and proceeds to show a video that contains different cafes around the globe with different themes such as maid-cafes in Japan, Game Cafes in Turkey and Pet Cafes na.
    • After showing the video teacher mirrors some brochures to the screen as well as handing down them to the students so that they can analyse them.


    • Firstly, teacher divides the students into groups four and then tells them that suppose you are going to open a cafe with a unique concept and advertise it through simple brochures which include your place’s title, its concept, what it is famous for and your top 5 selected food & drinks.
    • Students then proceed to brainstorm individually about different concepts and then present them to their colleagues and later on in a democratic manner they discuss and rank their ideas and decide upon one theme.
    • After deciding upon their theme they will then start decide upon the title of cafe and the cuisine to be in it and then they will start designing their brochures by inspecting the previously given ones.


    • After successfully completing the task-cycle they will advertise their Cafes through the brochures they have designed.

    Language Focus

    • They will analyse the given brochures before and focus on the language specifically used there and then they will be presented with practice activities that aim on use modal verbs, time expressions, vocabulary of foods and beverages.

    Teacher Notes: Goal should include communicative function. If the goal does not fit the task, it’s meaningless. Instructions should be more structured and clear. Timing should be revised as this task requires minimum two lessons. Level of the students are probably elementary because its output demands are low. Decide on the goal first.

    English Literature – 2 | 16/04/2019


    • He did not write poetry like Wordsworth. At some point their friendship ended and he moved out of Wordsworth’s house then his opium addiction got more severe and he sought help but wasn’t very successful.

    Kubla Khan

    • He wrote these from the visions he saw.
    • Book he had in his hand before this place, gave him inspiration to this man.
    • He brought dualism to this work by combining opposites in one place.

    Satanic School

    Lord Byron (1788-1824)

    • He was a lord and he looked down upon the common folk.
    • He was brought up as an aristocrat and he had a great wealth.
    • He was in total opposition to the government and to the system such as industrial revolution, he did not like tyranny of the British monarchy and he wanted to show sympathy towards common people who were oppressed by the establishment.
    • He was a great admirer of the Greek civilisation and he helped greeks to gain their independence from the Ottomans.
    • He was a bisexual person who did not believe in marriage. He was an admirer of Satan in the paradise lost, he believed that Satan was an anti-hero.
    • He was a non-conformist.

    The Byronic Hero

    • A man who has stronger feelings than most people; suffers more than other men; lives faster than other men and is an outsider to society. He kept a journal and called himself Herald and wrote about the places he saw from Grand Tour.

    Don Juan

    • A womaniser character from Lord Byron’s work Don Juan.

    Percy Shelley

    • He was also considered satanic and non-conformist.
    • He was an aristocrat and he had a great wealth as well. He studied at Cambridge, he was in poetic circles, he was an admirer of greek mythology and he wasn’t happy with the rules that restricted him. He just wanted to read, write and enjoy the life.
    • He met a man called William Rodwig, that man had a daughter called Mary, she was also a non-conformist and she wanted to publish her own works in a very msynogonistic era. He then became friends with her and then became lovers.
    • Their relationship produced a great deal of poetry. He was a fan of Prometheus from Greek Mythology. Percy believe in productive power of chaos and anarchy. He, too admired John Milton’s Satan.
    • Shelley had ideas of what poetry should be like and what should it do.
      • Poetry is distinguished from prose by virtue of its quality of prophetic (with great power) imagination.
      • Shelley was a believer of extremes.
      • According to Shelley, poets are like Prophets.
    • He was in love with the Italian country and even bought a house from there. In at house there was a spooky story contest and at that night Mary wrote Modern Prometheus aka Frankenstein.
    • When Percy died they found John Keet’s poems in his pockets.

    Civil Disobedience

    • Thoreau’s civil disobedience and Gandhi’s passive resistance were influenced and inspired by Shelley’s nonviolence in protest and political action.
    • It is known that Gandhi would often quote Shelley’s “Masque of Anarchy” which has been called “perhaps the first modern statement of the principle of nonviolent resistance.”

    John Keats (1795-1821)

    Cogni: The term used to refer to low society of the British people.

    • He was more into more humble setting and he wanted to be a surgeon.
    • He had bad health and his brother died from tuberculosis as well as his brother.
    • He was practicing as an assistant in a surgery. He was a self-educated man, he read a lot, he was an introvert, he was very much alone and he fell in love with a young girl who was actually daughter of the neighbour. Her name was Ferry Brown, she was beautiful but she was interested in socialising, she aimed at being an elite but she was interested in Keats, she wanted to take literature classes from Keats and its in this period that we see Ferry Brown chasing into sensitive into literature and falling in love with Keats, during this relationship we see how Keats describes poetry. When you go into a lake you do not have the purpose of finding out dimensions of the like such as how deep it is or wide it is but you just go into the lake because you like the feeling of being in water.
    • Was concerned with morality of imagination, the complex relationship between art and experience and the immortality of art.
    • Was a pictorial poet
      • His poetry is full of visual imagery.
    • Wrote great examples of odes.
      • Odes written to address a concept. So the focus of that poem is only one thing.
    • He believed in immortality of art.

    English Literature – 2 | 09/04/2019

    The Romantic Movement

    In the age of reason all the emotions were said to be controlled under logic and also “art” had some certain rules. Your reason tells you something but your instincts may tell you something else.

    • A great shift from the Enlightenment’s emphasis on rationalism to subjectivity and intense feelings.
    • The romantics were inward-looking relying on personal experience and intuition.
    • The feeling gives importance to the situation, not the situation to the feeling.

    The Essence of Romanticism

    • Glorification of instincts and emotions as opposed to a worship of intellect.
    • Contempt for formalism
      • Form is not important anymore.
    • Deep love for nature
      • Age of reason focused on the system of nature but the romantics look at its beauty instead.
    • Love for humble folk.
      • All of the common folk.
    • Strong wish to remake the world.
    • Belief in man’s natural goodness.
      • Man is naturally good, although there is evil in it.
    • Respect for imagination.

    With Romantics…

    • Poetry became more subjective and literature began to be defined as “imaginative”.
    • Poet became “a special interpreter (special snowflake) of special truth to a special reader – not of general truths to common readers. The relationship became more personal, more intense and deeper.”

    Changing Times…

    • Political Tumult
      • 1773 – American colonies gained independence.
        • British law demanded huge amount of tax from the America.
        • Colonies united and formed militia.
        • Boston Tea Party.
      • 1789 – French Revolution.
        • French executed their king.
        • Sympathy for principles of liberty, equality and fratenerty.
    • Industrial Revolution
      • Harnessing of steam.
        • Discovery of steam power triggered this revolution.
      • Opening of factories.
      • Mass production of goods.
        • You need transportation for selling the mass produced goods.
      • Enormous new wealth, enormous new poverty.

    Thomas Paine

    • He wrote political pamphlets and the most important ones are
      • Common Sense
      • Rights of Man
    • He was pro-freedom.

    First Romantic Artists

    • Walter Scott
      • inventor of the historical novel (Inaboe, Rob Roy)
      • He was Scottish.
      • Rob Roy is a very famous Scottish hero. He fought for pride and money.
      • Ivanhoe took place in medieval time.
    • Robert Burns
      • Used the language and songs of the rural people in poetry.
      • He is a very famous poet.
      • Lass is a Scottish word for a young beautiful girl.
    • John Constable
      • painted the rural countryside of England.
      • Still paintings.
    • William Turney
      • Revealed interest in the unleashed powers of nature in his painting.
      • Dynamic paintings.

    Note: Romantics wanted to live in countryside as it was purer, they disregarded the urban life.

    William Blake

    • He was an interesting character. He wasn’t just a poet but he was also a visionary and a painter.
    • He was a skeptical person. He believed that we are all, each one of us capable of great powers but there are social rules around us and these chains are not just social or political chains, they are in our brains and minds. We cannot imagine in a complete freedom but if we do we can actualise the true potential.
    • He wasn’t a religious person or an atheist. People always regarded God as the reasonable and logical character, he was associated with what is right and Satan on the other hand disobeyed the god and he came from the chaos. Blake believed that this chaotic energy could actually contain very creative powers.
    • He is most famous for Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience.
      • In Paradise Lost, Adam and Eve were innocent because they did not know what is bad but when they learned what is bad, they got experienced.
    • He collected these poems and the two works listed above are the collections of these poems. He divided poems into two.

    Note: God is Shepherd and Jesus is the Lamb.