I lie as you sit beside me, hearing the odd noises from outside, odd words from inside in the brink of an earthquake I find myself lie beside you. What is this exhaustion, what is this burning longing feel?

I jump into the abyss of sleep and I find myself unable to move, unable to fall, unable to see the dreams covered in blackness in the abyss. Just staring into the blackness, burning with the longing feel, just standing on air and staring.

I used to find peace in sleep, I used to see the abyss as a home, home of a forsaken person, forsaken by his star left to rot in the darkness and be one with it. Yet, now I am unable to be one with the dark, unable to find peace in the timeless abyss, instead I just stare down at it with that burning longing feel for you, breaking down the timelessness of endless abyss.Every minute that I spend in it is a torture than serenity, waste than profit and fuel for my emotions.

I open my eyes, abandon the abyss and look at you. How did I let this happen to me? How did I fall just like the others despised. I watch you from distance, with the same burning longing feel just as I was in the abyss, this time covered in fake light, able to see and move, yet the burning longing feel remains. Questions fill my head, uncertainty distorts the time I am stuck between defeat and hope with the fear of being forsaken once again but what I can do rather than accepting my fate and continuing my journey of life and love.

Maybe you watch me as I mirror my stream of emotions, maybe not…

Musa Kaan Durmuş

English Literature – 2 | 16/04/2019


  • He did not write poetry like Wordsworth. At some point their friendship ended and he moved out of Wordsworth’s house then his opium addiction got more severe and he sought help but wasn’t very successful.

Kubla Khan

  • He wrote these from the visions he saw.
  • Book he had in his hand before this place, gave him inspiration to this man.
  • He brought dualism to this work by combining opposites in one place.

Satanic School

Lord Byron (1788-1824)

  • He was a lord and he looked down upon the common folk.
  • He was brought up as an aristocrat and he had a great wealth.
  • He was in total opposition to the government and to the system such as industrial revolution, he did not like tyranny of the British monarchy and he wanted to show sympathy towards common people who were oppressed by the establishment.
  • He was a great admirer of the Greek civilisation and he helped greeks to gain their independence from the Ottomans.
  • He was a bisexual person who did not believe in marriage. He was an admirer of Satan in the paradise lost, he believed that Satan was an anti-hero.
  • He was a non-conformist.

The Byronic Hero

  • A man who has stronger feelings than most people; suffers more than other men; lives faster than other men and is an outsider to society. He kept a journal and called himself Herald and wrote about the places he saw from Grand Tour.

Don Juan

  • A womaniser character from Lord Byron’s work Don Juan.

Percy Shelley

  • He was also considered satanic and non-conformist.
  • He was an aristocrat and he had a great wealth as well. He studied at Cambridge, he was in poetic circles, he was an admirer of greek mythology and he wasn’t happy with the rules that restricted him. He just wanted to read, write and enjoy the life.
  • He met a man called William Rodwig, that man had a daughter called Mary, she was also a non-conformist and she wanted to publish her own works in a very msynogonistic era. He then became friends with her and then became lovers.
  • Their relationship produced a great deal of poetry. He was a fan of Prometheus from Greek Mythology. Percy believe in productive power of chaos and anarchy. He, too admired John Milton’s Satan.
  • Shelley had ideas of what poetry should be like and what should it do.
    • Poetry is distinguished from prose by virtue of its quality of prophetic (with great power) imagination.
    • Shelley was a believer of extremes.
    • According to Shelley, poets are like Prophets.
  • He was in love with the Italian country and even bought a house from there. In at house there was a spooky story contest and at that night Mary wrote Modern Prometheus aka Frankenstein.
  • When Percy died they found John Keet’s poems in his pockets.

Civil Disobedience

  • Thoreau’s civil disobedience and Gandhi’s passive resistance were influenced and inspired by Shelley’s nonviolence in protest and political action.
  • It is known that Gandhi would often quote Shelley’s “Masque of Anarchy” which has been called “perhaps the first modern statement of the principle of nonviolent resistance.”

John Keats (1795-1821)

Cogni: The term used to refer to low society of the British people.

  • He was more into more humble setting and he wanted to be a surgeon.
  • He had bad health and his brother died from tuberculosis as well as his brother.
  • He was practicing as an assistant in a surgery. He was a self-educated man, he read a lot, he was an introvert, he was very much alone and he fell in love with a young girl who was actually daughter of the neighbour. Her name was Ferry Brown, she was beautiful but she was interested in socialising, she aimed at being an elite but she was interested in Keats, she wanted to take literature classes from Keats and its in this period that we see Ferry Brown chasing into sensitive into literature and falling in love with Keats, during this relationship we see how Keats describes poetry. When you go into a lake you do not have the purpose of finding out dimensions of the like such as how deep it is or wide it is but you just go into the lake because you like the feeling of being in water.
  • Was concerned with morality of imagination, the complex relationship between art and experience and the immortality of art.
  • Was a pictorial poet
    • His poetry is full of visual imagery.
  • Wrote great examples of odes.
    • Odes written to address a concept. So the focus of that poem is only one thing.
  • He believed in immortality of art.

English Literature – 2 | 02/04/2019

English Literature

The Romantic Movement

In the age of reason all the emotions were said to be controlled under logic and also “art” had some certain rules. Your reason tells you something but your instincts may tell you something else.

  • A great shift from the Englightment’s emphasis on rationalism to subjectivity and intense feelings.
  • The romantics were inward-looking relying on personal experience and intuition.
  • The feeling gives importance to the situation, not the situation to the feeling.

The Essence of Romanticism

  • Glorification of instincts and emotions as opposed to a worship of intellect.
  • Contempt for formalism
    • Form is not important anymore.
  • Deep love for nature
    • Age of reason focused on the system of nature but the romantics look at its beauty instead.
  • Love for humble folk.
    • All of the common folk.
  • Strong wish to remake the world.
  • Belief in man’s natural goodness.
    • Man is naturally good, although there is evil in it.
  • Respect for imagination.

With Romantics…

  • Poetry became more subjective and literature began to be defined as “imaginative”.
  • Poet became “a special interpreter (special snowflake) of special truth to a special reader – not of general truths to common readers. The relationship became more personal, more intense and deeper.”

Changing Times…

  • Political Tumult
    • 1773 – American colonies gained independence.
      • British law demanded huge amount of tax from the America.
      • Colonies united and formed militia.
      • Boston Tea Party.
    • 1789 – French Revolution.
      • French executed their king.
      • Sympathy for principles of liberty, equality and fratenerty.
  • Industrial Revolution
    • Harnessing of steam.
      • Discovery of steam power triggered this revolution.
    • Opening of factories.
    • Mass production of goods.
      • You need transportation for selling the mass produced goods.
    • Enormous new wealth, enormous new poverty.

Thomas Paine

  • He wrote political pamphlets and the most important ones are
    • Common Sense
    • Rights of Man
  • He was pro-freedom.

First Romantic Artists

  • Walter Scott
    • inventor of the historical novel (Inaboe, Rob Roy)
    • He was Scottish.
    • Rob Roy is a very famous Scottish hero. He fought for pride and money.
    • Ivanhoe took place in medieval time.
  • Robert Burns
    • Used the language and songs of the rural people in poetry.
    • He is a very famous poet.
    • Lass is a Scottish word for a young beautiful girl.
  • John Constable
    • painted the rural countryside of England.
    • Still paintings.
  • William Turney
    • Revealed interest in the unleashed powers of nature in his painting.
    • Dynamic paintings.

Note: Romantics wanted to live in countryside as it was purer, they disregarded the urban life.

William Blake

  • He was an interesting character. He wasn’t just a poet but he was also a visionary and a painter.
  • He was a skeptical person. He believed that we are all, each one of us capable of great powers but there are social rules around us and these chains are not just social or political chains, they are in our brains and minds. We cannot imagine in a complete freedom but if we do we can actualise the true potential.
  • He wasn’t a religious person or an atheist. People always regarded God as the reasonable and logical character, he was associated with what is right and Satan on the other hand disobeyed the god and he came from the chaos. Blake believed that this chaotic energy could actually contain very creative powers.
  • He is most famous for Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience.
    • In Paradise Lost, Adam and Eve were innocent because they did not know what is bad but when they learned what is bad, they got experienced.
  • He collected these poems and the two works listed above are the collections of these poems. He divided poems into two.

Note: God is Shepherd and Jesus is the Lamb.

English Literature – 2 | 19/02 Class Notes

English Literature – Restoration (1660)

Charles the Second

Restoration Literature

-Every movement in literature is a reaction its predecessor.

Elizabethan literature, all those lyrical poems, enthusiasm, overflow of emotions but following Elizabethan Era, then came Puritans and then came the civil war.

Literature written between this period, this is a period which follows great chaos, civil war. The restoration of monarchy and literature produced by this restoration did not allow any extreme emotions. No religious extremism, no emotional extremism, it underlined and emphasized measure, order and calculation. They emphasized that we should control our emotions and we should not step overlain with them. We should focus on reason.

This is age of the reason.

Charles the Second came to the power from France, he was in exile in France with his family. When the common wealth ended and monarchy was restored he was chosen as the king and came back to England from France. He brought the French influence once upon England. French way of perceiving the world, meeting the people and etc. all about him was French. Included in this French influence was classicsm or neo-classicism, the French were really interested in the classical works from Romans and Greeks, they were fans of the Roman way of life. They translated most of the Roman literature into French and this king read all of the translated words and he was really interested in neo-classicism, when he got back to England, he brought all these with him and these ideas started to spread in England.

Not only literature, but dresses, architecture and etc. was inspired by Romans.

This new king who got the England from France, he wanted to do the same as French and be a fan of Roman life of style, their arhiceture, their dresses and etc.

In restoration we see “wit” as a very crucial part of the literature, so important that a good writer should have it in order be a good writer.
Reacting against the extravagance of the late Renaissance literature, writers of this period allowed the classical works, stressing restraint, clarity, regularity and good sense.

For them, wit was a crucial characteristic of a good writer and it meant inventiveness and quickness of thought expressed in “most easy language” rather than unnecessary embellishments.
A major question among restoration writers was whether the writers of classical antiquity (Romans or Greeks) had been better able to imitate human nature than the moderns.

Positing nature as the source and is imitation as the ultimate aim of art, the equation was to define the rules to be followed in any form or genre of writing.

Classical authors were widely translated and imitated by writers such as Dryden, Pope, and Johnson.

For moderns, studying the ancients (Greek writers such as Platon, Eurpides) was supposed to eb the same as studying nature itself.

With the restoration, criticism of art starts. People question what is an art, what is purpose of an art, is art for art or art for people. People are writing literature of all kinds but are they all art? Can we name as Art?

So, we see criticism of art surfacing in this period and what does art do? What should art imitate? So, there is a thought of Art reflects the nature. In restoration times this idea of what should art imitate and who did it better became a very commonly questions.

(Classical artists vs Modern Artists)


Dramatic poesy – Dramatic Poetry


Dryden’s An Essay on Dramatic Poesy

Written in the form of a conversation between four speakers, three of which present the ideals of order, restraint and accuracy characteristics of Neoclassicicsm (Crites, Lisideius, Eugenius).

The fourth spekaer, Neander, representing Dryden himself, embraces the moderns’ innovations, defends English drama against the French and chooses “irregular” Shakespeare over “correct” Jonson.


This period does not allow irregularity but in his work Dryden he is making a choice, he chooses Shakespeare, who is a very irregular writer writing in extremes such as ambition (Macbeth), Romeo and Juliet (extreme of love). Shakespeare was not a “regular”, whereas Jonson was pretty much “correct”.

Dyrden is defending Shakespare against Dryden and he is defending English literature against French influence and Neoclassicism. He claims that English comes with its innovations and the most perfect man for him is Shakespeare.

In this text, he praises Shakespeare a lot but why? Dryden is defending English here, he is saying we have Shakespare and you don’t to French. Hah they got you French. He says that Shakespeare’s irregularity makes him English and that makes him better than French and Greeks.

He claims that Shakpestre is the most “correct” poet, and this means the one who writes according to the rules (correct poet).

He compares Shakpesare with Ben Johnson, he says that Shakpesare is Homer and Johnson as Virgil.
Dramatic Rules

Three Unities

  1. Time: In classical drama a dramatic play takes place in the duration one day only. It must take place in the duration of one day.
  2. Place: The play must take place in the same place. So when you are watching a play if the setting is London it must be London throughout the play.
  3. Plot (Action): There must be one major action.

Shakespare did not obey these rules. In the classical times the greeks and the romans wrote according to three unities. In neoclassical times, the French wanted to the same, but English did not want to obey these rules but Shakespare did perfect without obeying these rules and did he fail? No, he did great.


Samuel Pepis was a scienctist and he was the president of an important organization called Royal Society for Science. Such organizations were very classified. This organization, its purpose was to advance science and learning, there was no politics involved and the members were interested in science solely. They were not in competition, they just wanted to do Science and Samuel was a that kind of a man. He was chosen as the president of this organization and at the same time he was working at Navy. He kept a diary, too but the diary was encrypted, he coded it, he didn’t aim people to read it.

He wrote everyday for 9 years, he wrote about everything in his life. He was constantly fighting with his father and brother, shaming his father for spending too much money, he crtiizwed his wife for her ambition to learn dance etc.

This diary shows us what life looked like in the restoration era. Years later this diary got discovered and it was decoded and everybody started reading it. When Pepis wrote about everything he also wrote about important things such as big fire in London which burnt down 1/3 of the whole city. He wrote about the kinds of gossips that people were doing behind the king and how people in lower classes talked about the royal family and all those changes that were taking in place.

It wasn’t aimed to be a literary works nor do we perceive it as it is, we read it to gather information about the restoration era.


!10 Downing Street – Home of Presidency!


We see how people getting increasingly social and urban. Urban life was vigorously expanding in those times. We see particularly following the big fire of London, the restanblishment of the city, it became very organized, the streets are going to be carefully planned, the roads going to be carefully made and the urban life expand. Slowly we see industrialization advancing and businesses thriving.

Many raw materials were being imported from the colonies at America and all these raw materials were in need of being used by different businesses in England and these businesses were usually in the City. We see slowly appearing Coffee Houses in the City where business owners and educated people to come to talk about business, general life affairs and mostly in this coffee houses we see political discussions with different idelogies and we see that who do get into these ideas do not fight with each other but tolerate each other and get to know each other in such places.

Now there is a very influential middle-class and they are making terrific money, they are not nobles, they have no lands but with all these money they started buying lands without titles such as being a lord. One way to get title is marrying ladies from royal families. We see a new class emerge in England and at the same time we see on the political side, we see basic two political parties emerge in England. The Tories supported the kind and Wigs supported Parliament and they were the opposition. These two parties formed in the parliament, supporters of thes parties gathered in the coffee houses they started arguing about their political views but they were not quarreling but modernly exchanging ideas. These coffee houses had this significance of exchange of ideas.


!Every Sunday was marked as (Lord’s Day) in this diary!

Although with restoration the puritans were suppressed, there were still some puritan practices were ongoing. With the restoration all the theaters were reopened but there were still some practices that did not change such as going to Church on Sunday, the pups were closed on Sundays.


We see that in his diary that gambling is becoming a sport for not only for money but for fun. Gentleman come together at night to play some card and slowly these slowly evolved into Gentlemen’s Club. We see that with these clubs a new form of sociality but still the religion continues to be an issue, in order to prevent this they made a bloodless revolution and they made a law, they brought someone from William Orange and put him to the throne and the next in line Queen Ann ( The favorite), with Queen Ann the Stewart Dynasty comes to and end but before she dies England, Ireland and Scots agree on union and becomes United Kingdom and slowly England establish itself as an Empire rather than a country. They embraced the flag of Union Jack.

English Literature – 2 | 12/02 Notes

Puritanism & Puritans

The roots of USA go back to Puritanism. Puritanism was a religion related issue, actually it was a reform movement.

This reform movement started to purify the Anglican Church. They thought that the people were being pulled away from the true virtues of the Church, for this reason this reform movement started.

These puritans had a certain way of dressing, they dressed in black and white for example ladies wore black dresses with white collars. Their homes were very simple. The kind of church they wanted to go and pray in was simple. The man wore mostly black and they had pointy hats.

The puritans believed in the teachings of Calvin. This man claims that there is no free will. Although it doesn’t put out free will completely, it pretty much conflicts with it. Calvin taught that it was okay to work for money. Calvin proposed money making businesses and his believers wanted to make a lot of money.

Puritans were not poor people, they were people who was rich and chosen a simplistic life style.

Civil War Broke Out (Royalists vs Parliament)

Puritans did not support the king as majority of the parliament consisted of puritans and as the king wasn’t a good king.

In this civil war, puritans were being hunted and most of them stayed in England but a lot of them fled the country, first to Netherlands and then most of them fled to United States and they established the first Colonies, they worked and lived in the new world. The first settlers of the United States were puritans, criminals, whores, so all of these people either fled to USA or they wanted to start a new life in the States. This new life in the states was basically puritan.

Movies Recommendation: Scarlet Letter

Puritanism in Literature

John Milton

He was a great writer but he was very tempered. He was highly intelligent, he studied at Cambridge and took lessons over health but he wasn’t happy with his major, so he changed his major to mathematics. He was a very

After finishing Cambridge, he continued his studies on his own for 5 years and learned to speak Italy.

He supported the Puritanism, he was a supporter of the parliament. He had some conflicts such as he believed in independence, individualism and freedom but contrary to himself he believed that all these should have a limit to themselves.

He wrote poems, he wrote propaganda for the puritans but at that he wrote his masterpiece known as Paradise Lost.

In English there are multiple words that means Cennet in Turkey such as Paradise, Heaven, Eden.

John Milton was a religious man and he wanted to write about an epic. In this epic he didn’t only want to write about heroes and villains but he wanted to write a religious epic. He wanted to base it on the Bible.

He wanted to make it his mission that anyone who read his work would accept the God as the Almighty Creator. He wanted to argue many things that got brought by the puritanism.

He wanted to talk about;

Free Will:

He wanted to talk about all these in setting of Bible. He borrowed the story of Genesis.

Story of Genesis from the Christian Perspective


God did not want Adam and Eve to eat from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Eve because that would cause them lose their innocence. You would do bad only when you lose your innocence.

Before eating from the tree, Adam and Eve were innocent.

Milton wanted to work on this story in the form of poetry but he wanted it to be a grand production. It is an Epic written in 12 books. He was blind when he was writing these books and his wife, secretary and daughters helped him to complete this hard task.

Providence: It’s an idea from Puritanism that means God sees all and has the power to determine all.

Man’s first disobedience is the subject of Paradise Lost. In the beginning of Paradise Lost, Satan already rebelled against the God and they were thrown into Hell.

The power of mind; Satan claims that living in paradise may be a hell for him and living in hell may be a heaven for him depending on his perspective. He chooses hell over heaven for his beliefs and cause. In this situation the pride in himself shows itself as the chooses to reign over Hell rather than being a servant in Heaven.

[John Milton was criticized for making Satan as hero of his Epic, in this Paradise Lost, Satan has a character that makes you relate to him and understand him]

God speaks of Adam and Eve and points out that all these were their fault, that they did this to themselves. Adam and Eve had fallen from Heaven, had fallen from the eyes of God, had fallen from good to evil for committing the sin. But, God, knew all these would happen all along. He claims that he created Adam and Eve to able to choose good and stood but he also let them to commit sins which resulted in banishment.

Predestination vs Foreknowledge

[In the description of Paradise Lost, Tree of Life is next to Tree of Knowledge]

Satan wants to a revenge as he is kicked from paradise, he believes that he didn’t deserve that. He knew that God loves his creations and especially Adam and Eve. Satan had this idea of tricking Adam and Eve and make them disobey God. He feels that it is a better idea to start with Eve as Adam is in love with Eve and Adam will do everything for Eve. He enters to Eve’s dream and he starts talking about nice things and giving ideas, when she wakes up and talks with Adam, Adam warns Eve about Satan. Later on, when they get separated, Satan disguises himself as a serpent and he tells Eve “5-6”, he then succeeds in his plan and she loses her innocence. After all these, Eve wants Adam to eat the fruit and he eats the fruit for the love he has for Eve. After they lose their innocence, they release that they are naked (they were naked all along) and they try to hide their body parts and they feel ashamed. Finally, God banishes them for committing the sin.

Milton justifies the ways of God with this Epic.

After a while Milton wrote another book as sequel to this book and the book is about Jesus and the name of the book is Paradise Regained.