Lexicology – Word Origins

*WORD ORIGINS*

*Blending(Portmanteau)*
Two meanings packed in one word.
Chortle: chuckle + snort
Smog: smoke + fog
Flush: flash + gush

*Inheritance*
Common Prepositions
Conjunctions
Auxiliary
Linking verbs
Common Body parts, verbs and kinship

*Neologism*
Creating a word without basing it on a previous word.
Kodak, Nylon, Kevlar, Teflon

*Acronyms*
A typical acronym takes the first sound from each of several words and makes a new word from those initial sounds

If the resulting word is pronounced like any other word it is a *true acronym* such as NASA.
*Initialisms*
If the letters which make up the acronym are individually pronounced, like TRT, such acronyms are initialisms.
*Reverse Acronyms*
The creators start with a word they want as their name, like MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers), and then they work from those four letters to find four words which represent something like the idea they want to be associated with.

*Creation by Shortening*
Shortening may take any part of a word, usually single syllable, and throw the rest away.

Quiz: inquisitive, Phone: Telephone, Plane: Airplane, Flu: Influenza

The process often applies not just to an existing word, but a whole phrase.

Mob: Mobile vulgus, Zoo: Zoological Gardens

!Back Formations like edit from editor, where the final -or is wrongly analyzed as a suffix and is treated as removable.

*Compounding*
Putting two words in a perfectly transparent way, and then various changes take place which cause the compound to lose its transparency.

Airship, Icebox, frogman, hovercraft

*Syntactic Compound*
Formed by regular rules of grammar, like sentences, and they are not, therefore listen in a dictionary.

Shoemaker, bookkeeper, washing machine, candlelight, birdcage, playgoer

*Lexical Compounds*
That are not transparent like the synthetic compounds.

Ice cream, Crybaby, Highlight

*Derivation*

*With Affixation*
Derivation consists in making up new words by adding up new words by adding endings to more basic forms of the word.
Mostly these derivations require no special definition or explanation because they follow regular rules.

If the new word can be full comprehended given a knowledge of the meaning of the base and also of the endings, then it is not a new word and should not receive independent dictionary treatment, because just by knowing the parts you also know the whole.

But if the new word is not transparent in that way, then it requires full definition.

Active => Activate, activation, actively, activeness, activity, activism, activist.

Grateful => Disgraceful
Hard => Hardly
*Without Affixation*
Air our opinions
Chair a meeting
Storm the gates
Floor our enemies
Polish the car

*Eponyms*
Words based on names.
The number of new words of this type in fields like science is very large.

Quite often we take the name of an individual, a character familiar from mythology, history, or folklore…

*Personal names*
Boycott: Charles Boycott, an English land agent in Ireland
*Geographical*
Bikini: The islands where the atom bomb was tested; presumably gets its meaning from the style of female native costumes encountered there.
*Literature*
Morphine: Morpheus was the son of the Greek god of Sleep)
*Brand Name*
Tampax: is one of many brands of feminine hygiene devices, generalized to them all.

*Echoic*
Words that are supposed to imitate sounds.

Burp, buzz, moo, baa, whack, sniff

*Reduplication*
In which part or all of a word is repeated.

Fifty-fifty, so-so, boob tube, brain drain

*|BINACCDER|*