English Teaching Methods – 2 | 03/05/2019

Yaklaşımlar

Language use and Interaction in the classroom

What is and What Should

  • If teaching equals to learning, our job would have been very easy but it doesn’t.

Significance of Classroom Interaction

  • Classroom interaction contributes to language development by providing target language practice opportunities
  • Interaction is language learning. Ot is not merely the process whereby linguistic knowledge is practiced, but rather the process whereby linguistic knowledge, and linguistic ability, are themselves developed.
  • We need to provide opportunities use the language in the classroom and classroom interaction then becomes learning.
  • If the CLT or TBLT is the theoretical background, when you apply them by planning your lessons, usually we don’T expect to see any kind of mismatch.
  • If the major classroom interaction conducted by the teacher we can not define this class in the standards of TBLT and CLT.
  • We should also underline the education system and act according to learners’ age and personalities.
  • We plan our lessons and when we try to act up on the plan, it results in classroom interaction and this classroom interaction could be conflictual or cooperative.
  • Teach the students, not the plan!
    • Your plan might be excellent but if it doesn’t work out, if you sense that it is not working out, one of the very bad choices is sticking to your plan. We are in the classroom not to teach the plan but to teach to students.
    • Students will resist your plans because they are not used to it. In the traditional teaching context, when you try do communicative or intentional plan you might encounter negative feedback from especially the elder learners.
    Take these into consideration
    • Age
    • Personality
    • Language
    • Educational background

On the spot decisions vs Planning Decisions

  • If you feel that your lesson plan isn’t working out in the class, you have to do on-the-spot decisions which are spontaneous decisions regarding the situation.

Classroom Interaction

  • Teachers plan their lessons by making selections with regard what teach (syllabus), how to teach (method), and perhaps also to the nature of the social relationships they want tot encourage (atmosphere). When acted on, their plans result in classroom interaction.
  • Action by the teacher, reaction by the students, this is how classroom interaction is created. Teacher by himself cannot control the classroom interaction as its a two way interaction.
  • It is not panned in advance, it is co-produced with learners.
  • It reflects the pedagogic decisions that have been taken, and all revolves as part of the process accomplishing it.

——————————————————————————————————————
Teacher Controlled Classroom Interaction = Initiation – Response – Evaluation (I-R-E)

  • Usually it is not authenticity.
  • Little to no contextualisation.
  • Teacher to Students interaction, no communication among the students.
  • Teacher centred classes.

The Teacher Allocated the turns by

  • Nominating
  • Signalling
  • Eye gaze
    Then selected students responds/reads her answer
    The teacher finally evaluates student’s response usually through repletion into case of a correct answer.

Teacher: What time is it? (Initiation)
Students: It’s 2 o’clock. (Response)
Teacher: Good. It’s 2 pm. (Evaluation)

Features of Teacher-Controlled Classroom Interaction

  • One-speaker-at-a-time rule rather than many-at-once.
  • Reluctance allow overlapping/simultaneous talk.
  • Rigid turn control by teacher.
  • Restriction of learners to a responding role.
  • Control of the content and direction of class-work by teacher.
  • Prevalence of teacher questioning.

Whole-Class Teaching

  • The teacher directs the whole class and usually in this way, the interaction is one way, students cannot speak until the teacher allows them too. Disadvantages
    * It is teacher-dominated, with little opportunity for active students participation.
    * Teacher stand to interact with only a small number of students int he class.
    * Teacher Action Zone: In each class there are some bright students and those students sit in the particular places in the class and opposites would sit at the back. In the whole class teaching teachers intend to communicate with the students who are seated in his action zone.
    * It assumes that all students can proceed at the same pace. However, slower students may be lost, and brighter students may be held back. Advantages
    * It enables the teacher to teach large numbers of students at the same time.
    * It can serve as a preparation for subsequent activities which can be completed individually or in groups.

Individual Work

  • When the students individually do some activity such as worksheet, this is called individual work.

Functional Distribution of Teacher Talk

  • Questioning/Eliciting
    • Any act designed produce verbal response from students.
  • Responding
    • To another speaker’s contributions/utterances
  • Presenting/Explaining
    • Any act presenting information of direct relevance to the learning task.
  • Organising/Giving Instructions
    • Any act which serves structure the learning task without contributing to the learning task itself.
  • Evaluating/Correcting
    • Any act which rates another verbal act positively or negatively.
  • Sociating
    • Any act contributing tot he establishment or maintenance of classroom rapport.
  • Directing
    • Any act encouraging non-verbal activity as an integral part of the teaching/learning task.
      ——————————————————————————————————————

English Teaching Methods – 2 | 12/04/2019

Yaklaşımlar,

TBLT is extension of CLT

  1. TBL is also based on linguistically functional school of linguistics.
  2. Just like CLT, TBL is also aims to developed communicative competence.

Second Era of CLT (Current Era)

TBLT doesn’t bring about any new ideas, so it is not a break-up from CLT. However, TBLT takes the centrality of communication principle and takes it further, and it says that communication or the functional use of language is at the centre of the classroom activities. So, it’s not only the goal but also means to achieve this goal.

But of course, there isn’t one single of approach in TBLT either. There is strong and weak version of TBLT.

  1. Strong Version: Application of TBLT practises and principles fully. Task as the basis. The main organising principle is the task itself.
  2. Weak Version: Is sometimes named as Task-Supported language teaching. Task as the supportive means. Integrating communicative tasks incidentally to form focused activities.

Most of the time teachers prefer the weak version as it is more flexible and comfortable for the teacher.

Each term come up with their own implications because each term is based on particular theoretical understanding.

  • Task
    • A class work that is carried out by the students usually to achieve a particular goal and which requires students to use the language to achieve this goal and at the end of the task there should be an observable outcome.
    • Communicative abilities develop altogether, there is no prerequisite relationship.
    • Communicative abilities develop through the communicative abilities.
  • Exercise
    • Are usually involves controlled teacher guided activities which are usually focusing on particular discrete forms of structures.
    • As a general term refers to the most traditional form focused, structural activities.
    • Exercises practices linguistic forms for developing linguistic abilities.
  • Activity
    • What the students are doing with the language.
    • Refer to any kind of purposeful classwork such as playing a game, singing a song, having a group discussion. These are all activities that can be done in the classroom.
    • Communicative activities do not necessarily mean they are tasks.
  • Outcome
    • Objective
      • Content
        • Meaning
          • Learner Involvement / Engagement

            Task Components (D. Nunan)

            • Task is the smallest teaching unit we have, it refers to a piece of classroom work that is carried out in one particular lesson but tasks do not function methodologically in an isolated way.
            • The curriculum specifies the general purposes of the course, target achievements of the learners in the terms of language. What my students will be able to achieve at the end of the semester. In order to achieve the goals of the curriculum you need to make monthly, weekly plans as well as lesson plans. In lesson plans you need to a number of activities and tasks so that is why task/activity is the smallest teaching unit. The goal of the task is the contact point between the curriculum and your lesson.

            A task has got 6 main components.

            • Goal (Communicative Functions)
              • In the tBLT just like CLT, any kind of goal, objective, purpose specficicanon is based on the communicative function.
              • With this task, your question that you need to ask yourself is that why do ı get my students to do this task?
              • The goal of the task, should serve the goals of the lesson plan, the goals of which should serve to the upper components.
              • We never ever as a teacher design or choose tasks according to our likes or dislikes, we do these tasks to achieve our general course objectives.
              • As you start designing or choosing task, your starting should be the goal and the it would come from the curriculum (general course objectives).
            • Input (Authentic)
              • Refers to the written or spoken language data that you use for the task design. It is expected to be as much as possible authentic.
              • If the input is simplified for the course purposes, it is not an authentic material. Authenticity is about the real world.
              • Why authenticity is important because it is first of all natural, why the fact that the input should be natural because in the real life communicative our main purpose is convey the message, we don’t think about the tenses or structures that we are going to use and it is quite rare to see a text using only one particular structure. This is why the students are learning the language, to convey their messages and engage in real life communication, use the language as an language instead of talking to bots.
              • Input Demands and Output Demands
                • If you are bringing news to a A1 class that would make the input demands high.
                • If the input demands are high, lower the output demands.
                • As the levels go higher you can increase both Input Demands and Output Demands.
                • When we in the real world, we never to listen or to read for fully, we most of the time selectively read and listen.
            • Activity
              • What the students are expected to the with the input.
              • If your input is a weather forecast, and authentic activity that you can ask your students to do with this input would be dress to accordingly or make plans accordingly.
              • If you make your learners listen to weather forecast and ask them if the statements are true or false, it wouldn’t be authentic because in real world we don’t do that.
              • You need to think of an activity which can be done in the real world with the given input.
              • According to the level of the students, in order to overcome the problems of the difficulty you should organise your activities according to input demands and output demands.
            • Setting
              • Settings refers to the setting of the activity. Is it a pair work, individual work, group work? If it is a group work what kind of a group work is it?. It is the set-up of the learning environment.
            • Learner Roles
              • For this task what are the roles of the learners are going to be. Maybe it is going to include role-play, interview, depending on the task type you need to think about learner roles because it is important for TBLT to every student to get a role explicitly.
            • Teacher Roles
              • Normally in a TBLT classroom quite a minimum teacher roles, teacher roles are limited with monitoring, explaining, assisting and supporting. Teacher can also make presentations, explaniniations etc but in TBLT classrooms bacuese the classrooms are focused on the learners, naturally the teacher roles get limited.
            • Real World Tasks
              • Pedagogic Tasks
                • They are like activities, they might focus on meaning but they are expected to prepare students to another aspect of the language.
                • Are usually justified on the grounds that they situmluate psycholinguistic acquisition process.
                • The justification come from SLA literature, not the methodology literature.

              In the SLA literature Focus on Form has got 2 types

              • Focus on form (meaning) (incidental)
                • The primary focus is on meaning however when the need arises incidentally you teach the form. So, you do not go the class to teach past simple, you go to the task with a communicative focus but throughout the class you teach them incidentally.
              • Focus on forms (forms) (planned)
                • The primary focus is the linguistic forms and the focus on forms refer to the planned teaching activities regarding a previously selected linguistic form. You choose a linguistic form and then you do activities to practice that form in the class.
              • Top-Down Approach to Language Comprehension & Production
                • Text discourse -> Sentences -> Clauses/Phrases -> Words -> Sounds…
              • Bottom-Up Approach to Language Comprehension & Production
                • Sounds -> Words -> Clauses/Phrases -> Sentences -> Text Discourse

              We look at the big picture then go down, not look at morphemes and then move onto the big picture. This is also the same for the language production.

              When you design the activities in the classroom, if there is a partiucal sequence, this sequence should be top down.

              ——————

              Pre-task: you introduce the act
              Task Stage: You explainn, you give the instructions, setting, explain the learner roles and then the students do the task. At the end of the task, students have to have an obersavle outcome, so task completion is a must.
              Reporting Stage: Students firstly plan how to report the outcome and they do the reporting. It could be a presentation, classroom newspaper, poster, essay etc.
              Language Focus: In a top down manner, where there is some more score for pedagogical tasks, focusing on the grammar.

              English Teaching Methods 2 – 15/03/2019

              Theory of Competence

              Pioneers of in the conception of competence,

              1. Saussure – Language vs Parole – Structuralism
              2. Chomsky – Competence vs Performance – Transformative – Generative Grammar
              3. Hymes – Communicative Competence

              Language and Parole

              Language is a system of science, from the smallest units such as phonemes and to largest unit text, all these are system and they are interrelated with each other.

              Language is underlying knowledge of the language including grammar rules, but parole is the actual ability to use the language. So, knowledge and ability are different object from perspective of

              We can say that structuralism, linguistics is a theory of language.

              Competence vs Performance

              Here,

              According to him, linguistic is a theory of competence not performance. As Chomsky defined language and competence. Here when we say linguistic theory is primary about the language, the term language refers to the competence and it is focused on the ideal speaker-hearer as known as native-speaker in a completely homogenous speech community which means full of similar types of native-speakers who have got similar level of competence and they know know their language perfectly and unaffected by the sociocultural factors.

              Ideal Hearer-Speaker

              This description defines competence according to Chomsky and again his theory was a theory of competence and this kind of defines or describe a similar way of competence for a homogenous community which was later got criticised by Hymes and other functionalist applied linguistics and later on due to his ideological choices such as narrowing the perfect speaker to native levels and ignoring sociocultural factors and assuming all this happens in a homogenous community.

              Communicative Competence

              According to Funcitonal school linguistic theory performance is about competenc.

              Whatever you perform linguistically you perform it with your competence and that’s way since this we don’t have any distinction between Competence and Performance because each of them depend on each other.

              What you are able to say reflects both your competence and performance.

              Functionalism

              Systemic – Functional Grammar

              M.A.K. Halliday

              In order to understand systemic functional grammar we should define language according to this theory.

              According to functionalism, a language is a social semiotic. Semiotic is actually a system of science. When we say it is a social semiotic, we mean language is a system of science to express the social meaning.

              Systemic: Refers to the options that are available to us to make meaning in given contexts.

              We have choices to make in 3 interrelated levels

              1. Level of behaviour: we make a choice to behave linguistically or non-linguistically. Because you can choose between two in such situations.
              2. Level of Semantics: What to say? What is the semantic meaning
              3. Level of Grammatical: We decide or choose how to say what to say.

              These choices we make at this 3 interrelated levels do not occur consequently and most of they do not consciously. Because, when you encounter communicate situations, the words just come out very automatically most of the time but actually behind it we go through these levels.

              !When we are learning a foreign language, on the other hand we operate these levels very consciously and make these decisions by ourselves!

              Functional: These choices we make occur in a functional context.

              As we grow up we acquire the language within the systematic and functional competence. That’s how we are able to communicate and we do have shared meaning which makes the communication possible.

              ——

              Linguistic Form vs Communicative Function

              Do your homework, please! – Imperative and Request

              According to structure each form reflect a perticual function. Structural theories do not highlight function because form are integrated with functions anyway.

              Functionalism says that there is no one to one correspondence between form and function and you can realise one communicative function by revising linguistics forms.

              Context, different linguistic forms acquire different functions according to their use of in their context.

              Functionalism is nota theory which excludes linguistic forms.

              ———
              Formal (Structuralism + Transformative-Generative Grammar)

              formal theories of language derived from …

              They describe and analyse languages in terms of their formal strategies.

              ———————————
              Halliday, Basic Functions

              These seven basic functions are turned into meta-functions which are 3 in number. These seven basic functions are about child language acquisition and meta one is about adult languag use.

              Under each meta functions, there are general communicative functions and there are specific communicative functions.

              One of the three meta functions is interpersonal metafiction use of language, establish and maintain meanings. Under interpersonal meta-functions

              1. Instrumental Function: The kid’s using the language as in instrument of giving things. So kid says something to get something.
              2. Regulatory Function: The kids using the language to regulate or to control the behaviour of others.
              3. Interecational Function: Here language is used to create interaction with others. Such as a kid asking to be friends with someone to play with.
              4. Personal Function: Is about using the language to express identity and feelings at the personal level. Such as expressing likes and dislikes, saying his/her name.
              5. Heuristic Function: Heuristic means enabling someone to learn and discover. Is the use of language by kids to learn and discover. Such as kids asking what is it?
              6. Imaginitave Function: Using language to create a world of imagination. For example a kid playing with the toys he imagines and gives them names, makes 10/10 imdb movies inside his head.
              7. Representational Function: Using the language to communicate and convey facts and factual information.

              We grow up

              1. Ideational meta-function : Is about the linguistic resources we have for constructing experiences. The relationship between human and the world, anything. When you talk about events, states, feelings, anything that is about your relationship between the world is ideational
              2. Interpersonal meta-Function: Social relationships. The point is to establish and maintain social relationships. This is the functions which we use to create any kind of relationship.
              3. Textual meta-Function: Can be seen as combination of the above. Because the first one is about relatiosbhip between the person and world and the second one is about the relationship between him and other persons and this textual function is combining them together. By text it is not only paper but it can be oral too such as Lectures.
                ———

              Wilkins, is a british applied linguistic, how to map the language other than the traditional concepts of grammar and vocabulary to teach. For this purpose, he talks about functions and notions.

              In document there was a huge list of General C.F. and Specific C.F.. Here we see socialisation for the general communicative functions, and ….

              He also talked about notions, notions refer to semantical, grammatical categories. In this way when they are combined, Semantics and Grammar are combined together.

              As a specific communicative function you can think about to express daily routines.

              Temporal Notion:

              • Frequency
              • Duration
              • Time
                Spatial Notion:
              • location

              What matters is the use of these functions and notions in the context. We don’T use grammar for the sake of grammar but we use it to express these notions and functions. So the grammar falls back to the second.

              CLT can be divided into two

              CLT Strong Version: We use the languae to use the language. There is no difference between using and learning, you learn the language by using it, without learning the language it is impossible to speak it.

              Weak Ctl: Has a communicative perspective on language which means it has got a communicative perspective on what to teach. Aims to teach different communicative functions but it does not emphasise on how to learn it, here the end and the means may differ. Such approaches could be called CLT based approaches.
              Strong CLT: Communicative perspective on learning. So this is more about how to teach. This means learning language through communicating and language is also communication, the end and the means are the same here.

              —————————

              It is not as presrciptive as a method but it used to be.

              Prescriptive methods and their importance started to decrease after 2000s and later on CLT transformed into an Approach after this date.

              English Teaching Methods 2 – 08/03/2019

              Methadological Era

              Conceptionalizon Communicative Competence Hymes communicative competence did have main components which are

              1. Possibility
              2. Feasibliltiy
              3. Acceptibality
              4. Appropriatenes

              In the original conceptiulzation by

              Canale and Swein: They stick to the conceptituzaliton by Hymes but they updated it to some extend. They stated that there are 4 components,

              1. Grammatical Competence: It refers to the knowledge of all linguistic units including syntax, semantics, lexicology, phonology, grammar. All the linguistic code features make up the grammatical competence.
              2. Socio-Linguistic Competence: We refer to knowledge of contextually appropriate language use. We should be able to making/using sentences in the right context and with the right accuracy. We acquire this competence at the same time with the grammatical competence. Especially significant, in order to make and receive and make sense of illocutionary sentences we use grammatical and socio-linguistic competence.
              3. Discourse Competence: Discourse is the largest meaningful object of the language. Any discourse is coherent and makes it is coherent and cohesion. Cohesion is achieved in the context, it is unity of the text such as when a person utters a illocutionary sentence and the other one gets the message that means that there is cohesion.Coherence is mainly about relationship among the utterances such as how they are bind together. Coherence and cohesion are the main elements of what makes a discourse a discourse. They help us to understand utterances in a discourse by connecting them together. Discourse competence refers to knowledge of achieving coherence and cohesion.
              4. Strategic Competence: More about communication stragetigs that we use to keep the conversation nor communication more effective to avoid misıunderstaning or six the misundetstahings or two avoid comuıncation breakdown or fix it. It is not about second language bu it is about language in general. If you for example just paraphrase your main points to make the conversation possibility go on, than this is a communication strategy. These are more about repairing or making the communication go on. Without this competence the communication will be blocked, won’t go smoothly or experience breakdowns. For example when you say something but the receiver doesn’t understand you try to convey the same message in a different way and this is a communicative strategy, too. Circumlocution* is defining a word in a different way to express it.

              Canale and Swein takes feasibility as something as universal, excluding it from communicative competence and saying that we acquire it naturally, it is given.

              We expect to main things in the classroom,

              • We as teachers need to do activities or teaching practices which aim to increase four of all these compteneecties but some of the activities my focus on various activities at the same time but when there’s an increase in one of the competences we expect to see increase in other ones too. If only one competency is invested all the time and the others are ignored , awe can’t say the same thing of course.

              If we compare this with Hymes’, there similarities and differences

              1. GC is similar to Possibility
              2. SLC is similar to Appropriateness
              3. DC isn’t similar to Feasiblility
              4. DC is a part of Appropriateness and Acceptibaliyty

              —————

              CLT expects teachers to make meaningful activities and situations.

              ———————

              Celee-Murcia (1995)

              1. Linguistic Competence:
              2. Sociocultural Competence: The cultural background knowledge needed to interpret and use a language effectively.
              3. Actional Competence:
              4. Discourse Competence: –
              5. Strategic Competence: –

              2 + 3 = Sociolinguistic Competence

              Common European Framework for Languages

              1. Linguistic Competence:
              2. Sociolinguistic Competence:
              3. Pragmatic Competence: Combines discourse competence and strategic competence.

              Celce-Murcia (2008)

              1. L
              2. S
              3. D
              4. S
              5. Formulaic Competence: Knowledge of those faces and orefactivated chucks of language that speakers use heavily in everyday interactions, such as routines, collocations, idioms, and lexical frames. Referring to the knowledge of those frequently used chucks or utterances without necessarily grammatical elements which enables you to survive in basic manners.
              6. Interactional Competence
                1. Actional Competence:
                2. Conversational Competence:
                3. Non-verbal/paralinguistic competence:

              English Teaching Methods 2 – 01/03/2019

              Theory of Communication
              —————————————

              Ethnography of Speaking / Communication (D. Hymes 1962)

              One of the first people to call for ethnography of speaking which is Ethnography of Communication which is a kind of subdicispline derived from anthropology and linguistics.

              Eth is a kind of research method and it particularly comes from the field of anthropology, that is why it is one of its sub-disciplines and communication refers to the linguistics. The term ethnography refers to the systematic study we particularly mean a research method, systematic study of cultures and people.

              When we say ethnography of communication is a kind of subdisicipline which is considered within the systematic study of the construction and negotiation of social meanings.

              Ethnographers study the communicative situation, not the individuals or communities. They observe the communicative situations and observe their acts in a long period of time as if they become a member of that speech community. They usually spend a very long time in order to be sure and not make false assumptions.

              Hymes proposed 6 units of communication,

              1. Speech Community: In order to call a group, community they have to share something common which are binding them together. In order to call them a speech community, there must be a shared language, and we use this term n a more comprehensive way, not necessarily referring to the linguistic code or national language. We can give examples of lectures as a speech community. Also, we need some shared rules of speech such as rules in a class, in an office meeting. We know these rules by some speech cultures such as school culture. When we say shared rules of communication, we speak rules of appropriacy in a contextual situation. As adults we know the appropriate rules of communication and use them in certain contexts and not use them in other ones. Even Twitter is a speech community and these communities are not fixed, they are dynamic and continuously changing.
              2. Communicative Situation: As the particular context in which communication takes place by the members of this speech community. When those members start communication in particular context, it is called the communicative situation. Speakers of particular speech communicaties have to how to take part in particular communicative situation. People may be members of the different speech communities at the same time. Is the particular context in which communication occurs. Such examples are, A court, a vaaz in a mosque, church services etc. Communicative situations have a specific patterns and parts such as opening sequence, middle sequence and end sequence.
              3. Communicative Event: Most of the time ELF lessons start with opening routines such as greeting, warming-up and then usually it is followed by a teacher directed lesson like teacher taking the floor and addressing the whole class together and this part is usually followed by an activity; individual work, pair work or group work, these are 3 types of activities and the last part is the closing routine such saying goodbye and giving homework. Each of these are a communicative events.
              4. Communicative Act: In every communicative event, every single utternarnces relailzes every communicative function is a communicative act. Here the important thing is, that uttenracnce realises one single communicative function. Such as when we say “Hello, how are you” in a class environment this is a communicative event but the sentences are are communicative act and the important thing here is functions of these sentences. Another example from daily life “May I have a coffee” is a communicative act and its function is requesting a coffee.
              5. Communicative Style: Refers to the way speakers speak such as do you speak politely etc.
              6. Ways of Speaking / Patterning: refers to the patterns of speaking in particularly communicative event.

              For Hymes, In order to communicatively be competent in a speech community we have to know all the units above. Unlike Chomsky’s competence which is about knowledge, Hymes theory is more interested in ability to use the language, performance. Different linguistic utterances gain different meanings in contexts and when we say contexts we mean we refer to communicative events and situation, for this purpose, Hymes talks about context of communication defining communicative event,

              Setting & Scene: We refer to the time, space and environment of the communication.
              Participant: Who is involved in communication.
              Ends: Here refers to purpose of communication together with the outcome of the communication.
              Act Sequence: Refers to the communicative act. Sequences of act makes up the communicative act.
              Key: Refers to the overall tone, manner of the communication. It’s like is it a serious tone, is it a mocking tone, what sort of tone.
              Instrumentalities: We refer to forms of communication such as e-mailing, phone calling, casual speaking
              Norms: Defines what is socially acceptable.
              Genre: Type of speech or type of text. Is it narration, is it a everyday casual conversation, so what Is the genre.

              In order to take part in a communicative event in a communicatively competent way, we consider all the factors above.

              If you need to design any kind of lesson, activity, task when you consider a context you need to consider all the units above.

              Speech Act Theory

              1. Locutionary: The literal meaning of an utterance.
              2. Illocutionary: When a word gains its meaning in a context, it is this.
              3. Perlocutionary: Result or the effect of the utterance

              Example of Locutionary with “Sorry about that”

              S: In a school in a hallway.
              Participants: 2 book reading students
              Ends: Apoligyziing for colliding to each other.
              Act:
              Key: In a worried tone.
              Instrumentalieites: Formal speaking
              Norms: casual school norms
              Genre: dialogue
              ————————————

              Example of IlLocutionary with “Sorry about that”

              S: In a dark hallway
              Participants: 2 people, one of them is a mafia boss and the other is a debt owner.
              Ends: threatening
              Act:
              Key: mocking and sarcastic tone
              Instrumentalities: Informal speaking
              Norms: no norms
              Genre: dialogue