HAYEF Note Agency


Two meanings packed in one word.
Chortle: chuckle + snort
Smog: smoke + fog
Flush: flash + gush

Common Prepositions
Linking verbs
Common Body parts, verbs and kinship

Creating a word without basing it on a previous word.
Kodak, Nylon, Kevlar, Teflon

A typical acronym takes the first sound from each of several words and makes a new word from those initial sounds

If the resulting word is pronounced like any other word it is a *true acronym* such as NASA.
If the letters which make up the acronym are individually pronounced, like TRT, such acronyms are initialisms.
*Reverse Acronyms*
The creators start with a word they want as their name, like MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Drivers), and then they work from those four letters to find four words which represent something like the idea they want to be associated with.

*Creation by Shortening*
Shortening may take any part of a word, usually single syllable, and throw the rest away.

Quiz: inquisitive, Phone: Telephone, Plane: Airplane, Flu: Influenza

The process often applies not just to an existing word, but a whole phrase.

Mob: Mobile vulgus, Zoo: Zoological Gardens

!Back Formations like edit from editor, where the final -or is wrongly analyzed as a suffix and is treated as removable.

Putting two words in a perfectly transparent way, and then various changes take place which cause the compound to lose its transparency.

Airship, Icebox, frogman, hovercraft

*Syntactic Compound*
Formed by regular rules of grammar, like sentences, and they are not, therefore listen in a dictionary.

Shoemaker, bookkeeper, washing machine, candlelight, birdcage, playgoer

*Lexical Compounds*
That are not transparent like the synthetic compounds.

Ice cream, Crybaby, Highlight


*With Affixation*
Derivation consists in making up new words by adding up new words by adding endings to more basic forms of the word.
Mostly these derivations require no special definition or explanation because they follow regular rules.

If the new word can be full comprehended given a knowledge of the meaning of the base and also of the endings, then it is not a new word and should not receive independent dictionary treatment, because just by knowing the parts you also know the whole.

But if the new word is not transparent in that way, then it requires full definition.

Active => Activate, activation, actively, activeness, activity, activism, activist.

Grateful => Disgraceful
Hard => Hardly
*Without Affixation*
Air our opinions
Chair a meeting
Storm the gates
Floor our enemies
Polish the car

Words based on names.
The number of new words of this type in fields like science is very large.

Quite often we take the name of an individual, a character familiar from mythology, history, or folklore…

*Personal names*
Boycott: Charles Boycott, an English land agent in Ireland
Bikini: The islands where the atom bomb was tested; presumably gets its meaning from the style of female native costumes encountered there.
Morphine: Morpheus was the son of the Greek god of Sleep)
*Brand Name*
Tampax: is one of many brands of feminine hygiene devices, generalized to them all.

Words that are supposed to imitate sounds.

Burp, buzz, moo, baa, whack, sniff

In which part or all of a word is repeated.

Fifty-fifty, so-so, boob tube, brain drain


English Literature

Modest Proposal

He was criticise the English government as they were ignoring Irish people and letting this chaotic problem consume them from inside. His criticism is really scientific including scientific research, using numbers, doing the math. He is presenting an argument which proposes babies as food as it would have a beneficial effect on economy, gastronomy and etc. He presents all his arguments in a very reasonable way.

With his disgusting reasonable proposal, he is also criticising his era which is era of reason as when someone solely focuses on reason, that person can think or even do filthy things.

He cared people as individuals not as groups. He may liked Jon but he may hate politicians, lawyers, etc.


Slowly the age of reason left its place to story-telling and stories. Since the first literature of England, the stories were told in verses, proses (French influence) but shortly evolved into novels.

Novels emerged in the 18th century for a variety of reasons. One of the reasons was to give people ability to expresses themselves in the age of reason. Novels are emotional outlet of for the author. In this century, middle-class was rising and their affluence was getting bigger and bigger and due to this they were able to get educated and learn to read, write. First works of novelty were conducted by women but due to society’s norms, they had to hide their names and use the men’s names to conceal themselves and share their work.

Jane Air – Sherlock Ronte, Emily Ronte, Ann Ronte: They wrote novels, each of them and they were really productive but they each used men’s name. When they went to the publishing firm, nobody believed that their literary works were conducted from a woman.

Journalism were becoming widespread, there was prose writing and it was getting more and more popular as well as biographies and there was the effect of puritanism.
Anything related to an individual could be made into a story.

The first English novel was Robinson Cruise written by Daniel Defo, in the novel people read what an indivuaul able to do when he is stuck in a situation, his survival instincts, what he was able to do in order to continue his life, stranded in an island. In the novel he was alone for some time but then he met a person and named him Friday as he met him on Friday. They were friends but they were not equal. People liked this book because even in the most hard situation an individual is able to rise, survive and etc. Later on there were a lot of references to Robinson Cruise such as “What would you do if you were stranded in an island?”

Robinson had to fight his way to make things for his life, to survive and all these required so much energy and strength. He motivated himself to overcome any hardships that may occur. In this work self-reliance was emphasised. (Puritanism).


Samuel Richardson – Pamela

He was an educated man and he was very good in writing letters. He made money out of writing letters, he wrote letters for people in business, for lovers and etc. One day a publishing house made him an offer, they wanted him to write letters and teach how to write letters for certain purposes. As he was doing his job, he realised that out of letters you could make a good story by their correspondence in different settings. He started working on his title called Pamela.

The main character is Pamela, she’s working at a very affluent house but she is very virtuous person despite the son’s advances to her. The son is seducted by her virtuous personality and falls in love with her and they live happily after. The main idea of this novel is importance of virtues. The novel is written in epistolary form (by combining letters).

This novel was criticised by H. Fielding, as the novel was focusing too much on virtues and modesty, so he wrote a novel Calle Josef Andrews, and this character was brother of Pamela. He later on wrote a novel calle Tom Jones which is a comic epic in prose work. This character is a very funny character and he puts himself in very difficult situations, he is a womaniser. Opposing Samuel Richardson, H. Fielding didn’t care about morals.

In novels, picaresque, this style emerged in Spain and it mens series of episodes in prose fiction where the hero is forced to seek his fortune outside of stable society. Imagine there is a family and in this family the father tells his son to go away and find his way, his place. Imagine we have a womaniser character and he has an affair with the married woman and the husband finds out and exiles him from the society.

Tom Jones is built with the picaresque style.


Gulliver’s Travels – J. Swift

  • The book basically asks a question: what sort of thing is man?

Identifying with Gulliver, voyaging through imaginary worlds we try tı find ourselves. Are proud insects, or lords of creation? Brutes, or reasonable beings?

Swift defined man not as a arational animal but as an animal capable of reason. He had a keen sense of our capacity for self delusion folly and vice.
He offers us comic and horrific perspectives, which confront us with unpleasant facets of human life, silently recommending proportion, humility and fellow-feeling.
The way others perceive you will you change what you are, you can be a giant in a place but a midget in another.

In this ship we have this man called Gulliver and he starts a voyage on that ship and he travels to imaginary places.

  • Four imaginary voyages of Lemuel Gulliver, a ship’s surgeon all of which end disastrously among “several remote nations oft he world.”
  • In the first book, Gulliver is shipwrecked in the empire of Lilliput, where he finds himself a giant among diminutive people.
  • In the second, Gulliver is abandoned by his shipmates in Brobdingnag, a land of giants, which appears to be a utopia governed by a human prince.
  • In the third voyage, to flying island of Laputa, Gulliver is together with scientists who are so occupied with their studies that they cannot see what is right in front of them.
  • The final voyage sets Gulliver between a race of horses, Houyhnhnms, who live…


Lawrance Sterne – The life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy

Shandy is a man and this book is about his life story in 9 big divisions of books, but his life story begins in the third book, before that he talks about his parents, society, etc. His life is full of funny incidents and he particularly talks about Uncle Toby

Lawrance had this interesting style, he had an interactive approach as he left some blanks in his books for you to fill them. Such as when he is descrpiting a beatiıful woman he leaves the desrictpion blank and expects you to write it. The book is written in a witty way accompanied with strange stylistic approaches.


Samuel Johnson – Dictionary of the English Language

The first dictionary of English and it represents the ideology of its era. In this dictionary Samuel Johnson passed his judgment into his work and defined words with his perspective. It is also important that how the vocabulary has changed over time.

Every age has its ideal concept of ideal man and in the age of reason, the ideal man is the person who uses his intelligence but one can not deny the fact that humans have emotions, too and after the age of era, there it comes

The Romantic Era.

English Literature

Defoe was a journalist, before he was novelist and he practice journalism and his very famous journal was about a very horrible set of events, a period which actually ruined a lot of things for the English people. This plague caused a lot of deaths and this man wrote a journal which was titled The journal of the plague year, in that journal, normally a journalist would report what is happening but this journal was in almost in the form of a diary, it was called a journal because there was no certain dates and this man did more than a journalist do when he would report a horrible disease. Normally a journalist report a situation like this starting from how it started, how many people have it killed so far, how it is contagious but Defoe took a different approach to this and he wrote about how horrible the event was but he looked psychological aspect, he looked at the social aspect, he talked about how horrified people become, how paranoid that become after the disease, how upset they were, how they didn’t trust anyone and what they felt about the origin of this disease. (17th cent)

After the restoration there was still puritan ideas that were alive in that century and such ideas fed the flame of divine punishment idea of the plague.

Pypes wrote daily entries – Defoe didn’t.
Pypes wrote about everything from his daily life to what he ate – Defoe didn’t focus on these but the disease itself and its effects.


The introduction starts with personal word choices which is contrary to general newspaper language.


Alexander Pope

A very important figure and representative writer in the 18th century. He was a catholic, he wasn’t actually allowed to do a lot of things when he was young, catholics were not nicely received and this man born into a catholic family although he had some good education he was not allowed show himself in the field he was working on, when he started writing in his youth at the age of 25 he established himself as a writer all these facts. He was mostly known for his work Rape of the Lock and Essay of Man

Essay on man

Despite its title, it is more of a poem than it is an Essay, which makes it an Epistle which means a letter which gives news. He believed in order of things, in the universe there was a grand order and everything that is alive and exists has a place in this order and he wanted to talk about this order and he mostly wanted to talk about the place of man in this order. Although this work is not in letter form as it is in verse form, it was still called an essay.

He is known for his heroic coplet, he was very skilful in expressing an idea expressing it in two lines and emphasising it.

He says “do not judge God” and emphasizes on finding ourselves by knowing ourselves. He says do not study God, do not presume what you can’t understand, know your place and study mankind, its limitations, its capabilities and etc.

This essay contains definition of the Man.

He is defining, men is in the middle of order of things, the god is at the top and animals are at the bottom. Man is darkly wise, a man can be wise and plan very harmful things unlike animals without free will and whatever God does, he cannot be labeled as bad. Man hangs between in doubt to himself and the beasts. Man is between to act or to rest. Man doesn’t know which choose, whether to choose mind or the beast (desires). Man is born to die and he has a talent of reasoning but he can make errors. He states that man was created half to rise and half to fall. Man is the glory but he is also a riddle, why does a human being does the things he does. Man is between his heart and his mind. He is talking about rising but as he man rises his guiding companion should be science. He also states that do not follow the people who imitate the god. Discover yourself, engage with yourself, not with the things that you can not understand. You would be amazed to discover what you are made of.


18th Century

  • While 17th century was the age of political dnd religious conflict, 18th centıry was tea ge of stability.
  • The age was characterised by a rational, scientific and secular attitude to life. Social laws (like universal laws) depended on reason and order. The age rejected intuition and mysticism.
  • The dominant intellectual attitude was empiricism (knowledge comes from experience) – direct observation of experience (John Locke’s argument of “tabula rasa”)
  • The key philosophy of The age is Deism, which united all men under one God and brotherhood. The deists argued that god revealed himself in nature rather than in books.
  • God is the supreme Architect, The Great Reason, The Great mathematician who built a relational universe for the benefit of man.
  • God is benevolent and his laws are kind and for the goodness of man.

Mind > Ruling powers of the 18th Century

Emotions > These are limited as they were seen harmful due to the harmful experience of the 17ht century

  • Concept of man: Man is a limited creature but he is perfectible because he has faculty of reason. He is no longer corrupt beyond repair because of the Fall (from Paradise).


The Rape of the Lock

The rape here is used in a metaphorical way and it is mocking the Epic genre. This is an example of mocking Epic. This work makes fun of all of the Epic features. The situation here is based on real events

    * Was written as an attempt to end a quarrel between two families. The quarrel had started when Lord Peter cut off a lock of hair, which he wished to “possess”, from the had of Miss Arabelle Fermor, the lady to whom he was engaged.
    * Pope wrote the poem in mock-epic style, in imitation of Homer, to “make a jest” of the indecent and to laugh with the two families.

He wanted to end this quarrel, so he wrote this mocking-epic story. He made these characters supernatural such as Belinda’s power of nymphs flying around her. He exaggerated everything such as Belinda’s beauty.

It is a poetry and this work is divided into Cantos which is a derived style from Italy. Throughout the work, Pope wants us to see idleness of the British people at that time, their foolishness and wasting the time away with various meaningless acts. People were snorting snuff which is a drug that is smelled and gives a good feeling.

Belinda is a thot who wants fame.

In epics some kind of narrator appears and warns you that everything is going to change.

With this work we see the element of “laughter”, he is making fun of English idleness. Here Pope is trying to make a point, he is saying that English people’s lives are very idle and meaningless and this led to a new genre which is called Satire.


Jonathan Swift – Modest Proposal

Swift detected a very important problem in Irish society.Ireland at the time was neglected, suppressed and English did not care about Irish. A population got out of control and there was not enough food to eat, there were horrible rulers and Ireland wasn’t doing good. Swift, he was an Irish and a weird man, he had interesting ideas, he saw that Irish had to help themselves and this problem that affected everything in Ireland, swift felt that something had to be done and he wrote a modest proposal. He chose to write in a satire genre because in this proposal he suggested eating babies, he stated there were way too many of them. The way he is doing it very scientific and logical, he presents it as a reasonable offer.

Theory of Competence

Pioneers of in the conception of competence,

  1. Saussure – Language vs Parole – Structuralism
  2. Chomsky – Competence vs Performance – Transformative – Generative Grammar
  3. Hymes – Communicative Competence

Language and Parole

Language is a system of science, from the smallest units such as phonemes and to largest unit text, all these are system and they are interrelated with each other.

Language is underlying knowledge of the language including grammar rules, but parole is the actual ability to use the language. So, knowledge and ability are different object from perspective of

We can say that structuralism, linguistics is a theory of language.

Competence vs Performance


According to him, linguistic is a theory of competence not performance. As Chomsky defined language and competence. Here when we say linguistic theory is primary about the language, the term language refers to the competence and it is focused on the ideal speaker-hearer as known as native-speaker in a completely homogenous speech community which means full of similar types of native-speakers who have got similar level of competence and they know know their language perfectly and unaffected by the sociocultural factors.

Ideal Hearer-Speaker

This description defines competence according to Chomsky and again his theory was a theory of competence and this kind of defines or describe a similar way of competence for a homogenous community which was later got criticised by Hymes and other functionalist applied linguistics and later on due to his ideological choices such as narrowing the perfect speaker to native levels and ignoring sociocultural factors and assuming all this happens in a homogenous community.

Communicative Competence

According to Funcitonal school linguistic theory performance is about competenc.

Whatever you perform linguistically you perform it with your competence and that’s way since this we don’t have any distinction between Competence and Performance because each of them depend on each other.

What you are able to say reflects both your competence and performance.


Systemic – Functional Grammar

M.A.K. Halliday

In order to understand systemic functional grammar we should define language according to this theory.

According to functionalism, a language is a social semiotic. Semiotic is actually a system of science. When we say it is a social semiotic, we mean language is a system of science to express the social meaning.

Systemic: Refers to the options that are available to us to make meaning in given contexts.

We have choices to make in 3 interrelated levels

  1. Level of behaviour: we make a choice to behave linguistically or non-linguistically. Because you can choose between two in such situations.
  2. Level of Semantics: What to say? What is the semantic meaning
  3. Level of Grammatical: We decide or choose how to say what to say.

These choices we make at this 3 interrelated levels do not occur consequently and most of they do not consciously. Because, when you encounter communicate situations, the words just come out very automatically most of the time but actually behind it we go through these levels.

!When we are learning a foreign language, on the other hand we operate these levels very consciously and make these decisions by ourselves!

Functional: These choices we make occur in a functional context.

As we grow up we acquire the language within the systematic and functional competence. That’s how we are able to communicate and we do have shared meaning which makes the communication possible.


Linguistic Form vs Communicative Function

Do your homework, please! – Imperative and Request

According to structure each form reflect a perticual function. Structural theories do not highlight function because form are integrated with functions anyway.

Functionalism says that there is no one to one correspondence between form and function and you can realise one communicative function by revising linguistics forms.

Context, different linguistic forms acquire different functions according to their use of in their context.

Functionalism is nota theory which excludes linguistic forms.

Formal (Structuralism + Transformative-Generative Grammar)

formal theories of language derived from …

They describe and analyse languages in terms of their formal strategies.

Halliday, Basic Functions

These seven basic functions are turned into meta-functions which are 3 in number. These seven basic functions are about child language acquisition and meta one is about adult languag use.

Under each meta functions, there are general communicative functions and there are specific communicative functions.

One of the three meta functions is interpersonal metafiction use of language, establish and maintain meanings. Under interpersonal meta-functions

  1. Instrumental Function: The kid’s using the language as in instrument of giving things. So kid says something to get something.
  2. Regulatory Function: The kids using the language to regulate or to control the behaviour of others.
  3. Interecational Function: Here language is used to create interaction with others. Such as a kid asking to be friends with someone to play with.
  4. Personal Function: Is about using the language to express identity and feelings at the personal level. Such as expressing likes and dislikes, saying his/her name.
  5. Heuristic Function: Heuristic means enabling someone to learn and discover. Is the use of language by kids to learn and discover. Such as kids asking what is it?
  6. Imaginitave Function: Using language to create a world of imagination. For example a kid playing with the toys he imagines and gives them names, makes 10/10 imdb movies inside his head.
  7. Representational Function: Using the language to communicate and convey facts and factual information.

We grow up

  1. Ideational meta-function : Is about the linguistic resources we have for constructing experiences. The relationship between human and the world, anything. When you talk about events, states, feelings, anything that is about your relationship between the world is ideational
  2. Interpersonal meta-Function: Social relationships. The point is to establish and maintain social relationships. This is the functions which we use to create any kind of relationship.
  3. Textual meta-Function: Can be seen as combination of the above. Because the first one is about relatiosbhip between the person and world and the second one is about the relationship between him and other persons and this textual function is combining them together. By text it is not only paper but it can be oral too such as Lectures.

Wilkins, is a british applied linguistic, how to map the language other than the traditional concepts of grammar and vocabulary to teach. For this purpose, he talks about functions and notions.

In document there was a huge list of General C.F. and Specific C.F.. Here we see socialisation for the general communicative functions, and ….

He also talked about notions, notions refer to semantical, grammatical categories. In this way when they are combined, Semantics and Grammar are combined together.

As a specific communicative function you can think about to express daily routines.

Temporal Notion:

  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Time
    Spatial Notion:
  • location

What matters is the use of these functions and notions in the context. We don’T use grammar for the sake of grammar but we use it to express these notions and functions. So the grammar falls back to the second.

CLT can be divided into two

CLT Strong Version: We use the languae to use the language. There is no difference between using and learning, you learn the language by using it, without learning the language it is impossible to speak it.

Weak Ctl: Has a communicative perspective on language which means it has got a communicative perspective on what to teach. Aims to teach different communicative functions but it does not emphasise on how to learn it, here the end and the means may differ. Such approaches could be called CLT based approaches.
Strong CLT: Communicative perspective on learning. So this is more about how to teach. This means learning language through communicating and language is also communication, the end and the means are the same here.


It is not as presrciptive as a method but it used to be.

Prescriptive methods and their importance started to decrease after 2000s and later on CLT transformed into an Approach after this date.

Methadological Era

Conceptionalizon Communicative Competence Hymes communicative competence did have main components which are

  1. Possibility
  2. Feasibliltiy
  3. Acceptibality
  4. Appropriatenes

In the original conceptiulzation by

Canale and Swein: They stick to the conceptituzaliton by Hymes but they updated it to some extend. They stated that there are 4 components,

  1. Grammatical Competence: It refers to the knowledge of all linguistic units including syntax, semantics, lexicology, phonology, grammar. All the linguistic code features make up the grammatical competence.
  2. Socio-Linguistic Competence: We refer to knowledge of contextually appropriate language use. We should be able to making/using sentences in the right context and with the right accuracy. We acquire this competence at the same time with the grammatical competence. Especially significant, in order to make and receive and make sense of illocutionary sentences we use grammatical and socio-linguistic competence.
  3. Discourse Competence: Discourse is the largest meaningful object of the language. Any discourse is coherent and makes it is coherent and cohesion. Cohesion is achieved in the context, it is unity of the text such as when a person utters a illocutionary sentence and the other one gets the message that means that there is cohesion.Coherence is mainly about relationship among the utterances such as how they are bind together. Coherence and cohesion are the main elements of what makes a discourse a discourse. They help us to understand utterances in a discourse by connecting them together. Discourse competence refers to knowledge of achieving coherence and cohesion.
  4. Strategic Competence: More about communication stragetigs that we use to keep the conversation nor communication more effective to avoid misıunderstaning or six the misundetstahings or two avoid comuıncation breakdown or fix it. It is not about second language bu it is about language in general. If you for example just paraphrase your main points to make the conversation possibility go on, than this is a communication strategy. These are more about repairing or making the communication go on. Without this competence the communication will be blocked, won’t go smoothly or experience breakdowns. For example when you say something but the receiver doesn’t understand you try to convey the same message in a different way and this is a communicative strategy, too. Circumlocution* is defining a word in a different way to express it.

Canale and Swein takes feasibility as something as universal, excluding it from communicative competence and saying that we acquire it naturally, it is given.

We expect to main things in the classroom,

  • We as teachers need to do activities or teaching practices which aim to increase four of all these compteneecties but some of the activities my focus on various activities at the same time but when there’s an increase in one of the competences we expect to see increase in other ones too. If only one competency is invested all the time and the others are ignored , awe can’t say the same thing of course.

If we compare this with Hymes’, there similarities and differences

  1. GC is similar to Possibility
  2. SLC is similar to Appropriateness
  3. DC isn’t similar to Feasiblility
  4. DC is a part of Appropriateness and Acceptibaliyty


CLT expects teachers to make meaningful activities and situations.


Celee-Murcia (1995)

  1. Linguistic Competence:
  2. Sociocultural Competence: The cultural background knowledge needed to interpret and use a language effectively.
  3. Actional Competence:
  4. Discourse Competence: –
  5. Strategic Competence: –

2 + 3 = Sociolinguistic Competence

Common European Framework for Languages

  1. Linguistic Competence:
  2. Sociolinguistic Competence:
  3. Pragmatic Competence: Combines discourse competence and strategic competence.

Celce-Murcia (2008)

  1. L
  2. S
  3. D
  4. S
  5. Formulaic Competence: Knowledge of those faces and orefactivated chucks of language that speakers use heavily in everyday interactions, such as routines, collocations, idioms, and lexical frames. Referring to the knowledge of those frequently used chucks or utterances without necessarily grammatical elements which enables you to survive in basic manners.
  6. Interactional Competence
    1. Actional Competence:
    2. Conversational Competence:
    3. Non-verbal/paralinguistic competence:

Theory of Communication

Ethnography of Speaking / Communication (D. Hymes 1962)

One of the first people to call for ethnography of speaking which is Ethnography of Communication which is a kind of subdicispline derived from anthropology and linguistics.

Eth is a kind of research method and it particularly comes from the field of anthropology, that is why it is one of its sub-disciplines and communication refers to the linguistics. The term ethnography refers to the systematic study we particularly mean a research method, systematic study of cultures and people.

When we say ethnography of communication is a kind of subdisicipline which is considered within the systematic study of the construction and negotiation of social meanings.

Ethnographers study the communicative situation, not the individuals or communities. They observe the communicative situations and observe their acts in a long period of time as if they become a member of that speech community. They usually spend a very long time in order to be sure and not make false assumptions.

Hymes proposed 6 units of communication,

  1. Speech Community: In order to call a group, community they have to share something common which are binding them together. In order to call them a speech community, there must be a shared language, and we use this term n a more comprehensive way, not necessarily referring to the linguistic code or national language. We can give examples of lectures as a speech community. Also, we need some shared rules of speech such as rules in a class, in an office meeting. We know these rules by some speech cultures such as school culture. When we say shared rules of communication, we speak rules of appropriacy in a contextual situation. As adults we know the appropriate rules of communication and use them in certain contexts and not use them in other ones. Even Twitter is a speech community and these communities are not fixed, they are dynamic and continuously changing.
  2. Communicative Situation: As the particular context in which communication takes place by the members of this speech community. When those members start communication in particular context, it is called the communicative situation. Speakers of particular speech communicaties have to how to take part in particular communicative situation. People may be members of the different speech communities at the same time. Is the particular context in which communication occurs. Such examples are, A court, a vaaz in a mosque, church services etc. Communicative situations have a specific patterns and parts such as opening sequence, middle sequence and end sequence.
  3. Communicative Event: Most of the time ELF lessons start with opening routines such as greeting, warming-up and then usually it is followed by a teacher directed lesson like teacher taking the floor and addressing the whole class together and this part is usually followed by an activity; individual work, pair work or group work, these are 3 types of activities and the last part is the closing routine such saying goodbye and giving homework. Each of these are a communicative events.
  4. Communicative Act: In every communicative event, every single utternarnces relailzes every communicative function is a communicative act. Here the important thing is, that uttenracnce realises one single communicative function. Such as when we say “Hello, how are you” in a class environment this is a communicative event but the sentences are are communicative act and the important thing here is functions of these sentences. Another example from daily life “May I have a coffee” is a communicative act and its function is requesting a coffee.
  5. Communicative Style: Refers to the way speakers speak such as do you speak politely etc.
  6. Ways of Speaking / Patterning: refers to the patterns of speaking in particularly communicative event.

For Hymes, In order to communicatively be competent in a speech community we have to know all the units above. Unlike Chomsky’s competence which is about knowledge, Hymes theory is more interested in ability to use the language, performance. Different linguistic utterances gain different meanings in contexts and when we say contexts we mean we refer to communicative events and situation, for this purpose, Hymes talks about context of communication defining communicative event,

Setting & Scene: We refer to the time, space and environment of the communication.
Participant: Who is involved in communication.
Ends: Here refers to purpose of communication together with the outcome of the communication.
Act Sequence: Refers to the communicative act. Sequences of act makes up the communicative act.
Key: Refers to the overall tone, manner of the communication. It’s like is it a serious tone, is it a mocking tone, what sort of tone.
Instrumentalities: We refer to forms of communication such as e-mailing, phone calling, casual speaking
Norms: Defines what is socially acceptable.
Genre: Type of speech or type of text. Is it narration, is it a everyday casual conversation, so what Is the genre.

In order to take part in a communicative event in a communicatively competent way, we consider all the factors above.

If you need to design any kind of lesson, activity, task when you consider a context you need to consider all the units above.

Speech Act Theory

  1. Locutionary: The literal meaning of an utterance.
  2. Illocutionary: When a word gains its meaning in a context, it is this.
  3. Perlocutionary: Result or the effect of the utterance

Example of Locutionary with “Sorry about that”

S: In a school in a hallway.
Participants: 2 book reading students
Ends: Apoligyziing for colliding to each other.
Key: In a worried tone.
Instrumentalieites: Formal speaking
Norms: casual school norms
Genre: dialogue

Example of IlLocutionary with “Sorry about that”

S: In a dark hallway
Participants: 2 people, one of them is a mafia boss and the other is a debt owner.
Ends: threatening
Key: mocking and sarcastic tone
Instrumentalities: Informal speaking
Norms: no norms
Genre: dialogue

English Literature – Restoration (1660)

Charles the Second

Restoration Literature

-Every movement in literature is a reaction its predecessor.

Elizabethan literature, all those lyrical poems, enthusiasm, overflow of emotions but following Elizabethan Era, then came Puritans and then came the civil war.

Literature written between this period, this is a period which follows great chaos, civil war. The restoration of monarchy and literature produced by this restoration did not allow any extreme emotions. No religious extremism, no emotional extremism, it underlined and emphasized measure, order and calculation. They emphasized that we should control our emotions and we should not step overlain with them. We should focus on reason.

This is age of the reason.

Charles the Second came to the power from France, he was in exile in France with his family. When the common wealth ended and monarchy was restored he was chosen as the king and came back to England from France. He brought the French influence once upon England. French way of perceiving the world, meeting the people and etc. all about him was French. Included in this French influence was classicsm or neo-classicism, the French were really interested in the classical works from Romans and Greeks, they were fans of the Roman way of life. They translated most of the Roman literature into French and this king read all of the translated words and he was really interested in neo-classicism, when he got back to England, he brought all these with him and these ideas started to spread in England.

Not only literature, but dresses, architecture and etc. was inspired by Romans.

This new king who got the England from France, he wanted to do the same as French and be a fan of Roman life of style, their arhiceture, their dresses and etc.

In restoration we see “wit” as a very crucial part of the literature, so important that a good writer should have it in order be a good writer.
Reacting against the extravagance of the late Renaissance literature, writers of this period allowed the classical works, stressing restraint, clarity, regularity and good sense.

For them, wit was a crucial characteristic of a good writer and it meant inventiveness and quickness of thought expressed in “most easy language” rather than unnecessary embellishments.
A major question among restoration writers was whether the writers of classical antiquity (Romans or Greeks) had been better able to imitate human nature than the moderns.

Positing nature as the source and is imitation as the ultimate aim of art, the equation was to define the rules to be followed in any form or genre of writing.

Classical authors were widely translated and imitated by writers such as Dryden, Pope, and Johnson.

For moderns, studying the ancients (Greek writers such as Platon, Eurpides) was supposed to eb the same as studying nature itself.

With the restoration, criticism of art starts. People question what is an art, what is purpose of an art, is art for art or art for people. People are writing literature of all kinds but are they all art? Can we name as Art?

So, we see criticism of art surfacing in this period and what does art do? What should art imitate? So, there is a thought of Art reflects the nature. In restoration times this idea of what should art imitate and who did it better became a very commonly questions.

(Classical artists vs Modern Artists)


Dramatic poesy – Dramatic Poetry


Dryden’s An Essay on Dramatic Poesy

Written in the form of a conversation between four speakers, three of which present the ideals of order, restraint and accuracy characteristics of Neoclassicicsm (Crites, Lisideius, Eugenius).

The fourth spekaer, Neander, representing Dryden himself, embraces the moderns’ innovations, defends English drama against the French and chooses “irregular” Shakespeare over “correct” Jonson.


This period does not allow irregularity but in his work Dryden he is making a choice, he chooses Shakespeare, who is a very irregular writer writing in extremes such as ambition (Macbeth), Romeo and Juliet (extreme of love). Shakespeare was not a “regular”, whereas Jonson was pretty much “correct”.

Dyrden is defending Shakespare against Dryden and he is defending English literature against French influence and Neoclassicism. He claims that English comes with its innovations and the most perfect man for him is Shakespeare.

In this text, he praises Shakespeare a lot but why? Dryden is defending English here, he is saying we have Shakespare and you don’t to French. Hah they got you French. He says that Shakespeare’s irregularity makes him English and that makes him better than French and Greeks.

He claims that Shakpestre is the most “correct” poet, and this means the one who writes according to the rules (correct poet).

He compares Shakpesare with Ben Johnson, he says that Shakpesare is Homer and Johnson as Virgil.
Dramatic Rules

Three Unities

  1. Time: In classical drama a dramatic play takes place in the duration one day only. It must take place in the duration of one day.
  2. Place: The play must take place in the same place. So when you are watching a play if the setting is London it must be London throughout the play.
  3. Plot (Action): There must be one major action.

Shakespare did not obey these rules. In the classical times the greeks and the romans wrote according to three unities. In neoclassical times, the French wanted to the same, but English did not want to obey these rules but Shakespare did perfect without obeying these rules and did he fail? No, he did great.


Samuel Pepis was a scienctist and he was the president of an important organization called Royal Society for Science. Such organizations were very classified. This organization, its purpose was to advance science and learning, there was no politics involved and the members were interested in science solely. They were not in competition, they just wanted to do Science and Samuel was a that kind of a man. He was chosen as the president of this organization and at the same time he was working at Navy. He kept a diary, too but the diary was encrypted, he coded it, he didn’t aim people to read it.

He wrote everyday for 9 years, he wrote about everything in his life. He was constantly fighting with his father and brother, shaming his father for spending too much money, he crtiizwed his wife for her ambition to learn dance etc.

This diary shows us what life looked like in the restoration era. Years later this diary got discovered and it was decoded and everybody started reading it. When Pepis wrote about everything he also wrote about important things such as big fire in London which burnt down 1/3 of the whole city. He wrote about the kinds of gossips that people were doing behind the king and how people in lower classes talked about the royal family and all those changes that were taking in place.

It wasn’t aimed to be a literary works nor do we perceive it as it is, we read it to gather information about the restoration era.


!10 Downing Street – Home of Presidency!


We see how people getting increasingly social and urban. Urban life was vigorously expanding in those times. We see particularly following the big fire of London, the restanblishment of the city, it became very organized, the streets are going to be carefully planned, the roads going to be carefully made and the urban life expand. Slowly we see industrialization advancing and businesses thriving.

Many raw materials were being imported from the colonies at America and all these raw materials were in need of being used by different businesses in England and these businesses were usually in the City. We see slowly appearing Coffee Houses in the City where business owners and educated people to come to talk about business, general life affairs and mostly in this coffee houses we see political discussions with different idelogies and we see that who do get into these ideas do not fight with each other but tolerate each other and get to know each other in such places.

Now there is a very influential middle-class and they are making terrific money, they are not nobles, they have no lands but with all these money they started buying lands without titles such as being a lord. One way to get title is marrying ladies from royal families. We see a new class emerge in England and at the same time we see on the political side, we see basic two political parties emerge in England. The Tories supported the kind and Wigs supported Parliament and they were the opposition. These two parties formed in the parliament, supporters of thes parties gathered in the coffee houses they started arguing about their political views but they were not quarreling but modernly exchanging ideas. These coffee houses had this significance of exchange of ideas.


!Every Sunday was marked as (Lord’s Day) in this diary!

Although with restoration the puritans were suppressed, there were still some puritan practices were ongoing. With the restoration all the theaters were reopened but there were still some practices that did not change such as going to Church on Sunday, the pups were closed on Sundays.


We see that in his diary that gambling is becoming a sport for not only for money but for fun. Gentleman come together at night to play some card and slowly these slowly evolved into Gentlemen’s Club. We see that with these clubs a new form of sociality but still the religion continues to be an issue, in order to prevent this they made a bloodless revolution and they made a law, they brought someone from William Orange and put him to the throne and the next in line Queen Ann ( The favorite), with Queen Ann the Stewart Dynasty comes to and end but before she dies England, Ireland and Scots agree on union and becomes United Kingdom and slowly England establish itself as an Empire rather than a country. They embraced the flag of Union Jack.

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Syllabus vs Curriculum

Syllabus: It answer the question of what to teach.

Develop awareness of what we are doing and what is our job.

ESL: English as a second language
EFL: English as a foreign language
TESOL: Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages

Teaching English in Turkey vs teaching English in Nigeria, is it the same thing? Absolutely not, English is an official language in Nigeria but in Turkey it is not.

These separations do not validate in our time, for this reason TESOL has been founded in USA.

In Europe, some people say that Teaching Additional Language to Speakers of Other Languages has been founded.

We are multilingual people, in that sense terms like ESL, EFL are not valid in our time now.

ESP: English for Specific Purposes, English for certain businesses for example.
EAP: English for Academic Purposes such as English Language Teaching major in Istanbul University.
ELF: English as Lingua Franca, We teach English to our students to enable them to talk to anyone.
ELFA: English as an Academic Lingua Franca, such as us speaking in English in our classes due to foreign students in our classes.
WE: World Englishes, there is no one English in the world, such as Singlish, Hong Kong English.
EIL: English as an International Language, some people are suspicious of ELF as if it has got its unique language. So they stand with this.

Commodification of English, English as a Commodity: Monetization of English, Prosperity through English

ELT is different from Teaching German or Russian, as it has much many speakers than the other languages.

Puritanism & Puritans

The roots of USA go back to Puritanism. Puritanism was a religion related issue, actually it was a reform movement.

This reform movement started to purify the Anglican Church. They thought that the people were being pulled away from the true virtues of the Church, for this reason this reform movement started.

These puritans had a certain way of dressing, they dressed in black and white for example ladies wore black dresses with white collars. Their homes were very simple. The kind of church they wanted to go and pray in was simple. The man wore mostly black and they had pointy hats.

The puritans believed in the teachings of Calvin. This man claims that there is no free will. Although it doesn’t put out free will completely, it pretty much conflicts with it. Calvin taught that it was okay to work for money. Calvin proposed money making businesses and his believers wanted to make a lot of money.

Puritans were not poor people, they were people who was rich and chosen a simplistic life style.

Civil War Broke Out (Royalists vs Parliament)

Puritans did not support the king as majority of the parliament consisted of puritans and as the king wasn’t a good king.

In this civil war, puritans were being hunted and most of them stayed in England but a lot of them fled the country, first to Netherlands and then most of them fled to United States and they established the first Colonies, they worked and lived in the new world. The first settlers of the United States were puritans, criminals, whores, so all of these people either fled to USA or they wanted to start a new life in the States. This new life in the states was basically puritan.

Movies Recommendation: Scarlet Letter

Puritanism in Literature

John Milton

He was a great writer but he was very tempered. He was highly intelligent, he studied at Cambridge and took lessons over health but he wasn’t happy with his major, so he changed his major to mathematics. He was a very

After finishing Cambridge, he continued his studies on his own for 5 years and learned to speak Italy.

He supported the Puritanism, he was a supporter of the parliament. He had some conflicts such as he believed in independence, individualism and freedom but contrary to himself he believed that all these should have a limit to themselves.

He wrote poems, he wrote propaganda for the puritans but at that he wrote his masterpiece known as Paradise Lost.

In English there are multiple words that means Cennet in Turkey such as Paradise, Heaven, Eden.

John Milton was a religious man and he wanted to write about an epic. In this epic he didn’t only want to write about heroes and villains but he wanted to write a religious epic. He wanted to base it on the Bible.

He wanted to make it his mission that anyone who read his work would accept the God as the Almighty Creator. He wanted to argue many things that got brought by the puritanism.

He wanted to talk about;

Free Will:

He wanted to talk about all these in setting of Bible. He borrowed the story of Genesis.

Story of Genesis from the Christian Perspective


God did not want Adam and Eve to eat from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Eve because that would cause them lose their innocence. You would do bad only when you lose your innocence.

Before eating from the tree, Adam and Eve were innocent.

Milton wanted to work on this story in the form of poetry but he wanted it to be a grand production. It is an Epic written in 12 books. He was blind when he was writing these books and his wife, secretary and daughters helped him to complete this hard task.

Providence: It’s an idea from Puritanism that means God sees all and has the power to determine all.

Man’s first disobedience is the subject of Paradise Lost. In the beginning of Paradise Lost, Satan already rebelled against the God and they were thrown into Hell.

The power of mind; Satan claims that living in paradise may be a hell for him and living in hell may be a heaven for him depending on his perspective. He chooses hell over heaven for his beliefs and cause. In this situation the pride in himself shows itself as the chooses to reign over Hell rather than being a servant in Heaven.

[John Milton was criticized for making Satan as hero of his Epic, in this Paradise Lost, Satan has a character that makes you relate to him and understand him]

God speaks of Adam and Eve and points out that all these were their fault, that they did this to themselves. Adam and Eve had fallen from Heaven, had fallen from the eyes of God, had fallen from good to evil for committing the sin. But, God, knew all these would happen all along. He claims that he created Adam and Eve to able to choose good and stood but he also let them to commit sins which resulted in banishment.

Predestination vs Foreknowledge

[In the description of Paradise Lost, Tree of Life is next to Tree of Knowledge]

Satan wants to a revenge as he is kicked from paradise, he believes that he didn’t deserve that. He knew that God loves his creations and especially Adam and Eve. Satan had this idea of tricking Adam and Eve and make them disobey God. He feels that it is a better idea to start with Eve as Adam is in love with Eve and Adam will do everything for Eve. He enters to Eve’s dream and he starts talking about nice things and giving ideas, when she wakes up and talks with Adam, Adam warns Eve about Satan. Later on, when they get separated, Satan disguises himself as a serpent and he tells Eve “5-6”, he then succeeds in his plan and she loses her innocence. After all these, Eve wants Adam to eat the fruit and he eats the fruit for the love he has for Eve. After they lose their innocence, they release that they are naked (they were naked all along) and they try to hide their body parts and they feel ashamed. Finally, God banishes them for committing the sin.

Milton justifies the ways of God with this Epic.

After a while Milton wrote another book as sequel to this book and the book is about Jesus and the name of the book is Paradise Regained.

A Language Story

Lingua franca, that is a language used widely for communication between people who do not share the same first (or even second) language.

English is also, of course, a mother tongue for many people in the world, though, as we shall see, such “native speakers” are increasingly out-numbered by people who have English as a second or third language.

There are currently around 1.5 billion speakers of English worldwide, of whom only some 329 million are native speakers. A quarter of the world’s population speaks English, in other words, and native speakers are in a proportionately ever-decreasing minority.

The Triumph of English

A Colonial History


When the Pilgrim Fathers landed on the Massachusetts coast in 1620 after their eventful journey from Plymouth, England, they brought with them not just a set of religious beliefs, nor only a pioneering spirit and a desire for colonization, but also their language.

It was the same in Australia, too. When commander Philip planted the British flag in Sydney Cove on January 26th, 1788, it wasn’t just a bunch of British convicts and their guardians who disembarked, but also a language.

It became something little like a lingua franca in India, where a plethora of indigenous languages made the use of any one of them as a whole-country system problematic. The imposition of English as the one language of administration helped maintain the colonizer’s power.



Economic power that ensures languages survival and growth. A major factor in the growth of English has been the spread of global commerce, pushed on by the dominance of the United States as a world economic power.

Commercial activity has helped fan the flames of English, but it is no longer possible to see this only in terms of one-way traffic.

Information Exchange


A great deal of academic discourse around the world takes place in English. It is often a lingua franca of conferences, for example, and may journal articles in fields as diverse as astrophysics and zoology have English as a default language.

The first years of the Internet as a major channel for information exchange also saw a marked predominance of English.



Much travel and tourism is carried on, around the world, in English.

A visit to most airports around the globe will reveal signs not only in the language of that country but also in English, just as many airline announcements are glosses in English, too.

English is also the preferred language of air traffic control in many countries and is used widely in sea travel communication.

Popular Culture

Popular Culture

Many people who are regular cinemagoers (or TV viewers) frequently hear English on subtitled films coming out of the USA.

The advent of film and recording technology greatly enhanced the worldwide penetration of English. In addition, countries such as the USA, Britain, Canada and Australia do their best to promote their culture overseas and to attract people to choose them as a study destination.

The Effect of English


Not everyone sees the growth of English as a benign or even desirable phenomenon. Many people worry about what it means for the cultures and languages it comes into contact with, seeing its teaching as a form of cultural or linguistic “imperialism”. They argue that, as we have seen, English has been regarded by some as a way of promoting military, cultural or economic hegemony.

The view that learners and non-native speakers of English are victims of linguistic and cultural imperialism is not shared by everyone.

An issue that concerns everyone who follows the rise of English is the impact it has on the other languages it comes into contact with. This concern is articulated in the knowledge that of the approximately 6000 extant languages in the world, at least half may be lost within the next hundred years.

Language death is a frightening and ongoing problem in much the same way that species loss is a threat to the biodiversity on our planet; for once lost, a language cannot be resurrected and its loss takes with it cultures and customs and ways of seeing the world through its use of metaphor, idiom and grammatical structuring.

In this context, a powerful argument is that as more and more people speak English, languages will gradually be lost.

Although there can be no doubt that the spread of English has some impact on other languages, creating a casual link between this language death seems somewhat simplistic.

In the first place, languages are under threat from a wide variety of sources, not just English. Spanish threatens some Andean languages, French battles it out with Euskara and Flemish, and the number of Mandarin and Arabic speakers is growing all the time – not to mention the growing growing influence that speakers of these languages exert in the international community.

A much more important predictor of language survival will be whether there is till a viable community with its own social and cultural identity to keep a language alive. In other words, survival is as much social as linguistic.

It is possible, of course that many of these languages may be lost from one generation to the next. But language is bound up with identity, and there are many examples of successful identity-grounded fightbacks.

Since the Balkan wars of 1990s, for example, Serbians, Bosnians and Croatians have all taken the original “Yugoslavian” Serbo-Croatian and started to mold it into three new varieties (Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian), emphasizing as many differences between these varieties as possible.

Members of the European Parliament who are competent speakers of English nevertheless use their own languages in plenary sessions as a highly charged statement of political and cultural identity.

Rather than fearing English as a destroyer, we should, perhaps, concentrate on how to maintain communities with a strong enough identity to preserve the language they represent. It is even possible that the presence of English as a lingua franca actually provokes speakers of minority languages to protect and promote their own languages.

English as a Global Language


In 1985 Kachru described the world of English in terms of three circles. In the inner circle he put countries such as Britain, USA, Australia, etc. where English is the primary language.

The outer circle contained countries where English had become an official or widely-used second language. These include India, Nigeria, Singapore, etc.

Finally, the expanding circle represented those countries where English was learnt as a foreign language such as Poland, Japan, Mexico, Hungary, etc.


It was once assumed that there was some kind of inbuilt superiority for inner circle speakers. They spoke “better” English, and there were more of them. Among other things, this situation “bred an extremely enervating inferiority complex among many a non-native speaker learner/teacher”

Since the majority of competent English speakers are not native speakers, but second-language users – the inner circle has lost much of its linguistic power, real or imagined. As a result, a consensus has emerged that instead of talking about inner, outer and expanding circle Englishes, we need to recognize “World Englishes”

Nobody owns English any more, in other words – or perhaps we could say that we all, “native” and “non-native” speakers alike, own it together in a kind of international shareholders’ democracy since whatever English we speak – Indian English, British English or Malaysian English, we have, or should have, equal rights as English users.

Native speakers may actually be at a disadvantage, especially if we compare less educated native speakers with highly competent and literate second-language English users. The speaker of World English is, perhaps, capable of dealing with a wider range of English varieties than someone stuck with native-speaker attitudes


The emergence of global English has caused Kachru to propose a new circle diagram where language affiliation (and ethnicity) is less important than a speaker’s proficiency. He still wishes to make a distinction between the inner core and everyone else, but outside that inner core, the main difference is between high and low proficiency users.

The Future of English


In 1998 David Graddol considered a number of future possibilities, all of which questioned the certainty of English as the number one world language. He pointed out, for example, that the fastest-growing language community in the USA was (and is) Hispanic.

It is highly possible that in the foreseeable future the entire American continent will be an English-Spanish bilingual zone. He also suggested that other languages such as Mandarin, Hindu and Arabic would gain in status and importance as their geopolitical and economic power increased.

He now suggests that there will be about 3 billion English speakers by the year 2040.

In 1999 the company Computer Economics said that the proportion of first language English-speaker users to speakers of other languages was 54%:46%, but that by 2005 that balance would change to 43%:57% – in other words, the number of other-language users would rise sharply.

What we do know is that because native speakers are becoming less and less “powerful” in the daily use of the language, we will have to adjust the way in which both native and non-native speaker experts have traditionally thought about learning and teaching English around the world.



ESP (English for Specific Purposes): English for specialties such as nursing or paper technology or banking.

EAP (English for Academic Purposes): To describe courses and materials designed specifically to help people who want to use their English in academic contexts.

EFL (English as a Foreign Language): Described situations where students were learning English in order to use it with any other English speakers in the world – when the students might be tourists or business people.

ESL (English as a Second Language) students, on the other than, were described as usually living in a target-language community (e.g. Britain, USA, etc.) and needed the target language in order to survive and prosper in that community, doing such things as renting apartments, accessing the local health service, etc.

The distinction has become difficult to sustain, however, for two reasons.

  • Firstly, many communities – whether in English – or non-English-speaking countries – are now multilingual and English is a language of communication.
  • Secondly, however, many students of EFL use English in a global context, as we have seen.

Using English for international communication, especially on the Internet, means that our students are in fact part of a global target-language community.


With the picture shifting like this, it makes sense to blur the distinction and say, instead that whatever situation we are in, we are teaching ESOL (English to Speakers of Other Languages).

English as a Lingua Franca

Lingua franca – that is between two people who do not share the same language and for whom English is not their mother tongue.


Barbara Seidlhofer at the University of Vienna has noted a number of somewhat surprising characteristics, including:

  • Non-use of third person present simple tense -s (She look very sad)
  • Interchangeable use of the relative pronouns who and which (a book who, a person which)
  • Omissions of definite and indefinite articles where they are obligatory in native-speaker English, and insertion where they do not occur in native English.
  • Use of an all-purpose tag question such as isn’t it? Or no? instead of shouldn’t they? (They should arrive soon, isn’t it?)
  • Increasing of redundancy by adding prepositions (We have to study about … and Can we discuss about …?), or by increasing explicitness (black color versus black and How long time? versus How long?)
  • Heavy reliance on certain verbs of high semantic generality, such as do, have, make, put, take.
  • Pluralization of nouns which are considered uncountable in native-speaker English (informations, staffs, advices)
  • Use of that clauses instead of infinitive constructions (I want that we discuss about my dissertation)

As Jennifer Jenkin’s points out “…the belief in native-speaker ownership persist among both native and non-native speakers”the evidence suggests that non-native speakers are not conforming to a native-English standard. Indeed they seems to get along perfectly well despite the fact that they miss things out and put things in which they “should not do”. Not only this, but they are actually better at “accommodating” – that is negotiating shared meaning through helping each other in a more cooperative way – than, it is suggested, native speakers are when talking to second language speakers.

In other words, non-native speakers seem to be better at ELF communication than native speakers are


Jenkin’s discusses “the need to abandon the native speaker as the yardstick and to establish empirically some other means of defining an expert speaker of English, regardless of whether they happen to be a native or non-native speaker”

The traditional “gatekeepers” of English (inner circle teachers, publishers, and testing organizations) may have to think again, in other words, and it is only a short step from this realization to the suggestion that – knowing what now know about ELF – we should start to think about what kind of English to teach.

Teaching English in the Age of ELF


For Jennifer Jenkin’s, instead of conforming to a native standard such as British English, learners “need to learn not (a variety of) English but about Englishes, their similarities and differences, issues involved in intelligibility, the strong links between language and identity, and so on”.

In her research she has noticed that some allophonic variation is not evident in ELF conversations (e.g. ELF speakers do not differentiate between strong and weak forms; they substitute voiced “th” with /t/, /s/ and /d/ – think becomes sink or tink), she suggests only concentrating on core phonology. And finally, she suggests that in lexis teaching we should “avoid idiomatic usage” – because ELF speakers don’t use idioms.

Opposing Ideas

Vicky Kuo argues strongly against the view that native speakers are irrelevant or that native-speaker varieties have little prestige.

She points out that there is more to language use than “mere international intelligibility”. She says that the phenomenon that people are making use of their imperfect L2 repertoire to communicate more or less effectively “is interesting and revealing”, but doesn’t necessarily have any implications for teaching.

Based on responses from students in her doctoral research, she suggests that while a degree of inaccuracy may be tolerated in communication, it does not constitute an appropriate model for learning purposes, especially in a highly competitive world where accuracy and linguistic creativity not only in speech, but also in reading and writing may contribute towards success.

Native Speaker Varieties and Other Englishes


The differences between British and American English are well documented. For example;

British English speakers regularly use the phrase have got in utterances such as I’ve got a book about it or Have you got the time? when American English speakers are more likely to say I have a book and Do you have a time?

While British speakers in conversation make us of the present perfect in questions such as Have you read her latest article yet? an American English speakers might well say Did you read her latest article yet?

And there are many differences in vocabulary use (lift/elevator, flat/apartment, trousers/pants), pronunciation [/lɔː/ – law (British English) versus /lɔ/ (American English), advertisement (British English) versus advertisement (American English)] and even spelling (analyse/analyze, colour/color).


But there is a danger in calling in variety by the name of a country, since in doing we fail to take account of regional variety.

If we consider “British English”, for example, it only takes a moment’s thought to realize that there are many varieties of English withing the British Isles, each with its own vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar.

While a Londoner might get a take-away meal to eat at home, a Scottish person will order a carry-out. While an East-end Londoner might talk about having a “barf” (/bɑ:f/), a Yorkshireman talks about a bath (/bæθ/social class).

In addition to geography, factors such as social class, ethnic grouping and sex affect the language being used and influence the way in which listeners judge speakers.

In Britain, while some accents are admired (such as “BBC English” and some Scottish varieties), others (such as “Birmingham” accent) are still seen by many as less attractive. Though it is true that such attitudes diminished towards the end of the twentieth century – and some accents, such as “Cockney” and “Geordie” became widely admired, particularly in broadcast media – it is still the case that many British people ascribe status, educational background and social position to a person largely on the basis of accent.

World English Education

Around the world English is taught in a bewildering variety of situations. In many countries it first appears in the primary curriculum, but many universities in those and other continue to find that their entrants are sufficiently competent in English use, even if, as David Graddol points out, good English is an entry requirement for much tertiary education in a global market where English gives the user a “competitive advantage”.

English is taught in private schools and institutes all over the world, and even in specialized “English villages” in countries such as Korea and Japan, where pupils live in English-only environments in specially constructed theme-park-like environments.

A growing trend has been for Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), where, in secondary schools, a subject is taught through the medium of English. It other words, the students learn the language for mathematics at the same time as they learn the mathematics they are talking about in English, the language and the subjects are taught side-by-side.

It is clear from this short summary that the old world of English language teaching is in transition, especially in terms of the language schools which have traditionally taught general English.


But whatever kind of English it is, we cannot escape the need to decide on the variety or varieties which students are exposed to and learn. As we have seen, the choice seems to be between adopting one (perhaps native-speaker) variety, or, on the other hand, raising students’ awareness or “pluricentricity” so that they can adjust their speech “in order to be intelligible to interlocutors from a wide range of L1 backgrounds, most of whom are not inner circle native speakers”

Inner circle varieties become noticeably inappropriate when, for example, students in the Far East or South America are taught particularly British idioms such as I may as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb or learn the language for renting a flat in the south of England.

What seems to be the case, therefore, is that especially for beginner students, a prestige variety of the language (whether from the inner circle or from anywhere else) will be an appropriate pedagogical model.

The actual variety may depend on the wishes of the students, the variety the teacher himself uses, the learning materials that are on offer, or the school or education authority policy. Within that variety, it seems entirely appropriate to say what is and is not correct or acceptable so that students have something to aim at and some standard to judge their performance by.

As they become more advanced, the variety’s richness – including metaphor and idiom- should be offered for the students to absorb, provided that it is not too culture-specific. But at the same time, as Jennifer Jenkins has suggested, we need to expose our students to the reality of World English. As they become more advanced, our students should be made more and more aware of the different Englishes on offer.

However, we will have to ensure that they are not swamped by diversity, but rather guided gently into an appreciation of the global phenomenon that is English.

Important Notice: This note was prepared by Musa Kaan Durmuş, none of the used information here belongs to him.