Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 | 21/04/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Learner Autonomy in the language classroom

Why do we need it?

  • Basically about having one being responsible for his/her learning.

Scope for Autonomy in the CEF

  • The council of Europe supports methods of language teaching and learning.
    • Which help young people and indeed old learners to build up the attitudes, knowledge and skills they need to become more independent in thought and action, and more responsible and co-operative in relation to other people.
    • In this way the work contributes to the promotion of democratic citizenship.

The General Competence of Language Learners

  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Existential Competence
  • Ability to Learn

Which of the following tasks are the responsibility of the teacher?

  • Material selection / –
  • Final decision on what is right or wrong / –
  • Assessing students performance and giving feedback / –
  • Distributing and collecting materials and works / +
  • Providing information / –
  • Seating arrangements / –
  • Error correction / –
  • Sequencing of the learning materials / ?
  • Using tools and resources. / ?

Note: Negotiate with your students as much as possible.
* Aims and objectives
* Materials
* Self-directed learning
* Resources
* Ideas to deal with content
* Learner Roles
* Participatory
* Responsible
* Linking learning experiences
* Evaluation
* What
* Process and product oriented goals
* Why
* Planning, thinking
* How
* Observation
* …
* ..
* ..


Teacher Reflection Learner Reflection
————————— —————————


For Autonomous Learning

  • Starting with what they already know something about the target culture.
  • Achieving transparency in the choice of topics tone covered
  • Designing activities that will require personal response
  • Helping students to develop a comparative perspective on home culture and target culture.
  • Encouraging self-directed work through projects.

Learners as Decision Makers

  • The awareness of one’s present state of knowledge and skills.
  • The selection of objectives and goals to be pursued.
  • The self-directed choice of materials. The preferred methodology for learning.
  • The preferred modes of learning on one’s own.
  • The preffree means of assessment to see one’s own progress.

Structuring Reflection

  • What did you want to learn?
  • Did you sc


  • Promotes learner autonomy.
  • Helps the learner personalise his learning experience.
  • Encourages them to ry new learning strategies.
  • Challenges them to reflect on the process of learning.
  • Gives new direction to future work.

For Success Autonomous Learning needs to be..

  • Explicit
    • Know what you are studying for.
  • Systematic
  • Consistent
  • Reflective


AAA Curriculum

Any educational enterprise should include

  • Awareness
  • Autonomy
  • Authenticity

Learner Autonomy

Raising Awareness -> Changing Attitudes -> Transferring Roles


Process Writing

  • Emphasis on not only the end product but also the process.
  • You work together with the learners and there is continues peer support and there is writing, rewriting and again rewriting, that’s why it is a challenging thing but it is highly rewarding.
  • Generating Ideas<->Evaluating<->Drafting<->Structuring<->Focusing<->Reviewing<->Generating Ideas

Sequencing of Activities

  • Brainstorming, note-taking, asking questions
  • Free writing, selection of ideas, point of view Preliminary Draft
    * First revision
    * Organising content, structural organisation

Generating Ideas

  • Reading a text on the related topic
  • Doing research
  • Brain-storming
  • Individual listing ideas
  • Discussion
  • Answering guided questions of the teacher
  • Free association (clustering..,



  • İdentifying main and supportive ideas
  • Deciding how different ideas can be grouped together
  • Establishing logical links between groups of ideas
  • Deciding how to present these ideas in a sequence
  • Finding supportive points (additional knowledge)

Assessment of the Product

  • Content
    • Thesis statement, related ideas, delvopment of ideas through personal experience, illustration, facts, opinions, use of description, cause and effect, comparison, contrast
  • Organisation
    • Effectiveness of introduction, logical sequencing of ideas, conclusion, appropriate length
  • Discourse
    • Topic sentences, paragraph unity, transitions, discourse markers, cohesion, rhetorical conventions, reference-deictic words, fluency, economy, variation in the use of language patterns to avoid repetition and redundancy.
  • Language Use
    • Syntax+

Note: Teacher has to be correcting and responding.


Learning Styles

  • It has to do with the individual variables that is individual learners.

Learner Differences

  • Age
  • Motivation
  • Personality

Field Independent/Analytic

  • Enjoy individual work
  • Constantly compare what they have learnt
  • Good at abstraction
  • Analytical and they want to calibrate themselves
  • Left brain orientation
  • Long memory span

Field Dependent

  • Social learners
  • Rather initiative
  • Enjoy contextualised learning
  • Responsive and communicative


Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 | 16/04/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

How about assessing task difficult that is what makes a tack easier or more difficult than another task.

Task Difficulty

  • Cognitive level
  • Language complexity
    • Existence of hard grammar structures, new word density, use of high frequency and low frequency words
  • Accessibility
    • Subject Familiarity, but it does not come just with the topic, so there is this issue of topic familiarity.
    • Task familiarity, if they regularly do a task, they would get used to it and perform better but if you present them a new task.

As teachers, ask these questions to yourself

  • Why am I doing this task with the learners?
    • What is my purpose in doing this task?
      • You should focus either focus on accuracy, fluency or complexity.
  • What is the content of the task?
    • Drawing familiar or unfamiliar information.
    • To what extent they are familiar with the given content.
  • How is the task to be carried out?
    • Will there be planning before doing the task.
    • Should I give them planning time or should I ask immediate answers.
  • In what situation is the task to be carried out?
    • Will it be monologic or diologic?

Task Adaption is preparing the students to the task from the pre-task stage to make it easier for them.

Less structured information tasks = More creativity in the process.

Task Dimensions and Task Difficulty

  • Code Complexity
    • Linguistic complexity and variety.
    • Vocabulary load and variety.
    • Redundancy and density.
  • Cognitive Complexity
    • Cognitive Familiarity
      • Familiarity of topic and its predictability.
      • Familiarity of discourse genre.
      • Familiarity of task.
    • Cognitive Processing
      • Information organising.
      • Amount of computation.
      • Clarity and sufficiency of information given.
      • Information time.
  • Communicative Stress
    • Time limits and time pressure.
    • Speed of presentation.
    • Number of participants.
    • Length of texts used Type of response.
    • Opportunities to control interaction.


Foster & Skehan

  • …Being able to assess a task’s difficult is crucial to understating how it might be performed
  • Knowing what demands the task will make opens up the possibility of using task design to manipulate learners…


  • …in the case of tasks designed for language learning or teaching purposes, performance ,s concerned both kWh meaning and the way meanings are comprehended, expressed andengotiated.
  • A changing başance need to be established between attention to meaning and form, fluency and accuracy in the overall selection and sequencing of tasks so that both task performance and language learning process


* Is confident about the task
* Is motivated to carry out the task
* Has necessary prior learning experiences
* Can learn at pace required
* Has necessary

    * Low cognitive complexity
    * Has few steps
    * Plenty of context provided
    * Plenty of help available
    * Does not require grammatical accuracy
    * Has as much time as necessary

Text / Input
    * Is short, not dense (few facts)
    * Clear presentation
    * Plenty of contextual clues
    * Familiar, everyday content




Text / Input


Task Demands

Cognitive Demands
    * Degree of contextualisation of language; difficult of concepts that re needed to do the task.
        * Use of graphics, colours, telling the time…

Language Demands
    * Whether the language is spoken or written, understanding or production, extended talk or conversation; vocabulary and grammar need, the genre, the amount of L1 and L2

Interactional Demands
    * Type of interaction required.
        * Group work, pair work, the participants in talk, the future of interaction. 

Metalinguistic Demands
    * The use of technical terms about langue in production or comprehension.

Involvement Demands
    * The ease or difficulty the learner has in engaging with the task; legs of task stages, links to child’s interest and concerns.

Physical Demands

* How long the child sits still for; actions needed, motor skills needed.


Abstract things are always more difficult than concrete things.

Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 | 09/04/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

TBLT follows task-cycle, in the task cycle there is preliminary introduction from the teacher that may be introduction of the task or the topic, there are mini-introduction required for the task.

Learners usually engage in pair or group work. First of all students plan how to make the task, then they work on task and finally then they report their conclusion. When this stage is over the stage of language focus comes which is solely focused on practicing lacking language skills.

Meaningful purpose exists in the tasks in which we replicate the real life events.
A reasonable input to act upon. It means that the kinds of input into task-cycle such as instructions.
Language outcome
Optimal level of difficulty, it shouldn’t be more difficult than cognitive development of the learner.

Material Selection Criteria (1st Phase)

  1. Exploitability: Make sure you choose such material but it really gives you chance to different types of tasks by the same topic and same material.
  2. Topic (Variety): Topic has to be a motivated one but at the same time related to real life concerns and make you sure that you include variety to topic selections.
  3. Length: It’s always good to choose a material that can be handled in chunks. If it’s not designed that way that may harm their feel of accomplishment, by completing series of chunks they will feel accomplished.
  4. Linguistic Complexity: If you focus on teaching on new vocabulary, it should be toned down. If it’s optimum it will give students to take a chance and respond.
  5. Accessibility: Can they really respond or would they really know about the given topic. It is mostly about content knowledge and familiarity.
  6. Copyright
  7. Motivation

Tasks (2nd Phase)

  1. Purpose
  2. Input
  3. Outcome
  4. Optimum Level of Difficulty

Task Difficulty (3rd Phase)

  • ———


Level of the leaners: B1
Class Population: 20


  • First of all the teacher greats the students and asks them how are they vaguely. After that the teacher tells his students that he has brought some brochures and asks them to divide in groups of four lastly distributes brochures to the students.
  • After the distributions phase, the teacher asks the students to guess what are these brochures, what could they be about, what are their purpose etc. (brainstorming)
  • When the brainstorming phase is over the teacher asks his students if they ever participated in such activities, if they did they he would ask them some volunteers to narrate their experiences or if no one has ever participated in such an activity, the teacher tells his story (anectods)


  • After the pre-task stage, the teacher asks his students to stay in groups of four decide upon an outdoor activity business. Upon deciding their business they are going to design their own business brochures for advertisement purposes regarding the previously given brochures as the input material. (Media Projects)


  • Upon finishing their brochures, they will advertise their business by presentation of their brochures.



  • Form groups of 4 and inspect the given brochures. Discuss what could be purpose of these brochures. Have you ever participated in such outdoor activities, if you did narrate your memory to the class.


  • In groups of four, inspect the given brochures again and then discuss and decide upon an outdoor business. Imagine that you are responsible for advertisement and design a brochure for your business regarding the previously given brochures in the sense of layout, language and informative value.


  • After designing your advertisement brochures, present them to the class and advertise your business according to the points you have made on your brochure.

Specializaiton in Teaching Methods – 1 | 02/04/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

1980-1990 >

It is an advanced form of the communicative. The need is helping learners gaining fluency in the target language.

  • It needs to be learner centred
    • You have to be engaging them in a task-based work.
    • You give the task, they work on it, they use the language and they try to progress communicatively.
  • It is really based on cooperative and collaborative learning.
    • There is space for individual tasks but you can not possibly persue task based learning in your classes without having pair and group works.
  • It is based upon interactive learning.
    • Interactive learning in that sense can only be achieved if only the upper conditions are served already as well as using an authentic text.
    • You have to be proficient in material design.
  • It supports whole language learning
    • Means integration of all skills such as listening, speaking and writing.
    • Task based learning is basically about how we use languages to fulfil certain tasks.
    • From the very beginning you encourage your students to all these skills.
    • It is about using language to fulfil social circumstances.
    • The sum of the parts do not make the whole.
      • Alination of units.
      • Anti structural.

Task based learning is holistic learning.
The key concern in task based context is meaningful learning.
* Drills never ever can be task based learning.

PPP (Presentation – Practice – Production)

  • Present the topic (Simple Present Tense)
  • Practice in a very controlled way (Drills)
  • You assume that students will be able to produce this (In an other context)
  • This is a linear approach.

Task based methodology is designed as an alternative way to the PPP model. TBL changes the sequence of this linear model.

  • It starts with a mini-presentation.
    • Teacher explains what kind of a task they are going to accomplish.
    • Teacher gives input for the necessary target.
  • Production
    • Students in a way engage in task accomplishment immediately.
    • This allows the use of learning by doing it.
  • If there is need for a specific language focus for further work on that language item, then Practice stage comes.

Task Based Learning Framework

    * The teacher introduces the topic and provides the necessary input for the upcoming task.
    * It is the preparation for the task-cycle.
Task Cycle
        * After the task is done, the group or the individual have/has to present the conclusion to the other students.
        * This is especially important as the students may fall into their native languages to accomplish the task and for this reason reporting stage makes them report their task result in the target language and that is why it is very important.
Language Focus
        * If explicit grammar teaching is required after the task cycle.

Task Identification Criteria

  • Meaningful Purpose
    • Use of language in a meaningful way as you would use it in your daily life language.
  • Input
    • Providing a clear input to act upon.
    • What kinds of materials do I bring in, what kind of task instructions do I give.
  • Output
    • It needs to have a language outcome
    • By doing this task and reporting the task results, they should be engaged in meaningful communication.
  • Optimum Level of Difficulty
    • Optimised difficulty for the students.
      • It is about their cognitive level, not their English level.

Task Types

  • In lıtereature there are alternative ways of defining task types
    • Open Tasks: Unpredictable as whole
    • Close Tasks: Spot the difference: Language might be used in unpredictable ways but at the end the outcome will be certain.
  • No tasks type is harden than the other.
  • Tasks could be cumulative (add on each other)
  • Task Types
    • Listing
      • Could be used for self-assessment.
    • Ordering – Sorting:
    • Comparing:
    • Problem Solving:
    • Sharing Personal Experiences:
    • Creative Tasks:

Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 | 12/03/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a dual focused educational approach in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of both content and language. That is, in the teaching and learning process, there is a focus not only on language. Each is interwoven, even if the emphasis is greater on one or the other at a given time.

There are 216 different ways of implementation.

… & Language

  1. Immersion: Students experience the foreign language in all of their classes.
  2. Sheltered Instruction: You pick those students up and put them in a special classroom with simplified foreign language use in classes.
  3. Adjunct Courses: Two separate courses, two separate subjects but they focus on the same content.
  4. Theme-based Approaches: The most general one is this approach. The emphasise is not only on the content but on the language as well.

Language is not only a medium of communication but a means of managing learning, it’s the tool we use toggle reflective shape t our experience.

  • Language of Learning
  • Language for Learning: There would be specific grammatical features that would really help us do the activities related to that content. How do we use our language to shape our knowledge.
  • Language Through Learning

The difference between ELT and CLIL Based ELT

CALP (Congitive Academic Language Proficiency 
    * Scaffolding
    * Building on prior knowledge
    * Show casing their literacy achievement
    * Extending knowledge of and control over language across curriculum. (Take up the content area from different classes such as math, science and make rejoiced connection between those content area. Language courses should not be separated from other classes.

BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)
    * -

Key Terms

  • Focus is on the language forms and functions which bet serve the learner.
  • Any teaching builds upon the previous experience…
  • ….
  • ..
  • ..



Word Generation

You may want your students to brainstorm and write words

Four Box Organiser

The Vocabulary Word > Visual reprenstation of the word > A sentence using the word > Student Friendly definition > The vocabulary word

Graphical organisers should be used greatly.

  • Texts are hierarchically organised (more important-less important)
  • Readers tend to focus on and remember information at higher levels
  • Top-level sctuructual information influence comprehension and recall
  • Awareness of text structuring aissit students’ content learning.
  1. Present good examples of completed graphic organisers
  2. Model how to construct graphic organisers.
  3. Discuss
  4. .
  5. .
  6. .

Venn diagram – Comparing two places of Interest
Spider map –
Fishbone Map –
Problem Solution Outline –
Cycle – Describing a weather phenomenon (rain)

Students engage in developing knowledge;
* Engaging
* Interacting
* Processing
* Associating
* Organising
* Note-Taking


  • Content Journal: It is like a portfolio, It is about what they already acquired, it needs to be progressive and consistent
  • Brain Racing
  • Mysterious Possibilities
  • What’s in a picture: What do you think the content might be
  • Question of the day: You want your students to come about a question with no “yes-no” answers such as “How does math resemble the ballet”. You want your students to bring their own questions but these should be not knowledge-challenge question. For one week you choose one and ask it to the class to make a research on it and answer it.
  • Vocabulary Alert: You want your students to keep a vocabulary journal, |(IDK)————(Sort of)—————(Ik)|, students put an x on the fitting place regarding their knowledge and then making them guess the word. This is important for self-assessment as they will go back to their vocabulary journal and check where they are on the chart at that time.
  • The ten most important words: You are asking the children to select 5-10 key terms, discussing what is more important, relevant.
  • The Minute-Preview


  • Pen-in hand: It is about writing. One of the fallacy in language classes is asking for summary of a book after the learners read, this is very bad as without scaffolding, investing on it, it is not good to ask for a summary as summaries are like making a snowball, how do you make a snowball. You have to gather it, shape it and then we collect more and shape it again, each time we do this we realise that process is important. When someone says writing skill everyone think that it is about writing an essay but its not.
    • Undelrine
    • Margin notes
    • Graphic organization
    • Note-taking
    • Outlining
    • Summarising
    • Paraphrasing
    • Preci-writing: You have to make a comprehensible text by using randomly given words without changing their order.
  • I wonder why?
  • Venn diagram: compering two things
  • Text structure: outlining a text
  • Quizzical Quotes: Hoca ne soarer? If you are reading an article when you see an important thing you say woah that Is an important thing.
  • Missing words: Not to be confused with drills, it has to be a concept, “It is very important to say…………”
  • Concept Collection: What is already known, what is new material, they make research, what does the text offer
  • Opinion Guide: What do It take the authority as, agree or disagree, it is like a response paper
  • Note-taking: take a few key words that defines a paragraph


  • E-mails: e-mail projects such as mutual projects
  • Simulation:
  • Raft: Means çekiliş. You have particular topic to deal with such as Eating habits, rafting is about writing but before writing, together with the classroom you make a raft table consists of “Role, Audience, Format and Topic”, each student will be writing from different role, audience, format and topic, this will give them a chance to experiment about different genres and writing processes.
  • Discussion Continuum: Pick up a point and make the students battle to the death.
  • Ethical Choices: Usually dangerous in second and third world countries. You could discuss Genetically mutated humans? Should death penalty be legalised?
  • Project Journal: keeping a journal of the project
  • I-search paper: write a paper minimum 300 hundred words and reference to the author
  • Cubing:

Thinks to Beware While Reading

  • Gaining competence inreading (getting messages- reading and understating)
  • Identifying the purpose in reading (acquiring knowledge, taking pleasure) and utilising related methodologies and strategies.
  • Developing
  • *
  • *
  • *
  • *

Identifying text type and communicative …..

  • Perceive the writtien text
  • Recognise language structures
  • Identify the message
  • Comprehend the message
  • Interprets the message (critical thinking, etc.)

We usually ask knowledge questions, we don’t give enough space for analysis, synthesis and evaluative questions.

In constructivist approach the most important thing is building upon the already known information.

Schema Theory

When new information comes in, cognitively what happens is that you check the new information if it fits the previously learned information or not. This is the stage in which equilibrium comes to the stage but if new information does not fit with the formar information, that means that your existing schema should be changed in order to continue and this is called disequilibrium.

They go hand in hand with very related two other concepts

  1. Zone of Proximal Development: What a person can learn with a support. The teachers role is to arrange the learning environment in a such a way that you help that learner to take a step considering her/his capability. Teacher’s job is to make the students realise her/his potential.
  2. Scaffolding: Not upfront teaching but giving a supporting hand only when the learner needs or demands it. It is not rushing and teaching but it is about organising the environment.

Language is not just a medium, language organises learning. Language helps us construct, shape our experience. Such as when children are talking to themselves to shape their learning.

Problem solving is a part of learning.

Your emphasis is on constructivist approach should be on process learning and it is really important in constructivist classrooms. Process learning is experiencing, experimenting, disequilibrium and equilibrium. You can support this kind of learning with Portfolios, project learning and collaborative learning. There shouldn’t competitive learning.

In terms of assessment, it favours formative assessment rather than summative assessment,

  1. To keep an eye on the process of learning, formative assessment about formation.
  2. After completion of all term, you move into centralised exams and the ultimate objective is to see what they learned (product).

For collobartion activities you could use jigsaw (usually it is a group work, each person knows a different segment of something without showing a piece to other one they communicate with each other fill the gaps).

Constructivist approaches are good for content building

Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 |12/03/2019

Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Life-long Learning

Joint Learning Enterprise

  • Always taking responsibility to learn
  • Revising your procedures on a life time span
  • Learner autonomy is extremely important. You can not invest on lifelong learning whiteout autonomy.
  • Self-Assessment
  • Reflective learning


  • Social networking is important for language learning.
  • Cooperative Learning – Teaching: teachers working together for the same classes.

If we know the desired outcomes for using that IT technology, it is useful

Action Research

  • The researchers are Teachers + Students
  • Mini self assasseemnt form after the tests and measure the results and identify the problems in order to improve and solve problems which is a very valuable way building a good relationship with the student, progressive teaching and a very indispensable part of the action research is autonomy.
  • Teacher and student cooperation but also it is not something that has to be employed once, if it does that way it would only be a lecture.

In service education

First of all clerification of terminology is very important.

Approach: About our initial question, the way you define language, the way you define. Approach is this understanding of this Lanague learning teaching
Method: The roadmap- plan but it is not just the activity sheets. Aims, specific objectives, teaching content (syllabus), materials, specific procedures and techniques, assessment and evaluation
Process: What do no now and what to do next, how do you things
Technique: Depens on the need and applies on the specific situation.

Within the approach you can use various methodologies

Designer methods: Who created that method would come up with a name. Method if it comes to that point, method is usually used in a very clarified, everything is defined such as Audolingual method, Suggestopedia

Post method: there is no one particular defined method


Audio lingual: structuralism

Sytagmatic: you know what words will come in an order
Paradicmatic: you know which item to take out and put another one instead of it

Drills are widely used

Approach to learning is behaviourism,: if you give a stimulus and get a correct respond you gotta continue.

Errors are not tolerate, importance on accuracy


TPR is a technique

Silent Way:


Structural Syllabus: Collection of forms and sturductres usually grammatical of the language being taught
Notinal Syllabus: Collection of the functions that re performed when language is used. Notions that is used to express.
Situational Syllabus: Collection of real or imaginary situations in which language occurs or is used.
Skill Based Syllabus: Collection of specific abilities that may play a part in using language.
Task Based Syllabus: Series of complex and purposeful tasks that the students want or need to perform with the language they are learning.
Content Based Syllabus: Some content or information different from language.

Constructivism (Yapılandırmacı)

  • Knowledge can not be taught but must be constructed by the learner.
  • Constructivist approaches describe how people transform and organise reality according to common intellectual principles as a result of interactions with the environment.
    • You attract meaning to experience depending on the interaction with the environment.
    • It is experience based learning.
  • Effective learning begins from the learner’s active participation in the process of learning.
    • Learners need to be involved in decisions about the content and processes of learning.
      • You should allow space for autonomy.

    You can not teach a notion but you can show ways of it.

    Constructive Approaches to Learning

    • Human brain is not simply a “mental” or “cognitive” apparatus, but is actually a social organ. (Pool 1997)
    • Following a social constructivist view of learning, Human beings create their own notion of reality and give meaning to it through the filtering of their experiences and perceptions in social contexts.
    • The learners should be encouraged to process information, make comparisons, construct knowledge and make critical judgements.

    Learning in Constructivist Classrooms

    • Primary resources are used in the classroom.
      • Authentic (texts that are not produced for the learners)
    • Experiential learning is integrated into the classroom.
    • The lessons build on students’ prior knowledge.
      • Their background knowledge. (You start from what they already know)
    • Constructivist learning is integrated into collaborative and cooperative learning activities.
    • Hands-on activities are integrated into the curriculum.
      • Related to experiential learning
    • Classroom learning is dynamic, ever-changing, evolving, reflective, enquiry-based.

    A Construvisit Frmae for Language Classes

    Initiating U Constructing U Utilising

    1. Connect what they know with the new information. Always dig deeper.
    2. Reengaging it, learning by doing it
    3. Outside of the classroom such as projects

    Cubing Activities


    Specialization in Teaching Methods – 1 | 19/02/2019

    Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

    What does it mean to know a language

    1972 A linguistic went to Warsaw and from morning to night the tv was open, he walked the streets, went to the cafes but did he manage to speak the language? No, he didn’t.

    It is not just a matter of exposure but quality exposure. Just exposure is not enough to learn a language and if you are just investing on receptive skills, your productive skills will be held back.

    The best way to learn a language is to contextualize the learning. What is contextualizing?

    That is use of language but on domains, you in a way define what possible intentions, who, where, etc. who is talking to who

    People who are engaged in communication are Called interlecuaters.

    They are talking about what?

    One of the golden things about ELT is contextualizing.

    Authentic language means a language that is not adapted for educational purposes, just the real life communication.

    Content-based approach to Language is best way to teach a language, you should bring different materials for your classes.

    Hearing, speaking, reading, writing, > all these integrated Hallstic Teaching.

    If you are talking about communication there needs to be integration among those skills and you have to priotorize holistic teaching.

    From the very first lesson of words what you have to do is let people read something respond to it, discuss about it and take notes and share it with others as well as listen to their notes.

    (Even note taking is a writing activity)

    What does it mean to know a language?


    1. Lexicon: voabulary
    2. Syntax: what are the rules


    The tone the style which suits that particular situation.

    Frozen register: Military, airport announcements


    It has to be with socio-linguistic competence that means dictionaries can’t help you.


    Corpus measures the kinds of words that are used by native speakers of the language in a time.

    Corpora – High frequency words – Low frequent words

    Phonemes to Morphemes to Words to Phrases to Clauses to Sentence to Paragraphs…. So you need to know about discourse and discourse means organization of the language.

    Morphemes are meaningful meanwhile Phonemes are just sounds.

    Coherence – Cohesion (Bağdaşıklık, Bağlaşıklık)

    Cohesion: Which words are indicators

    Genre is a cultural item, because the community decides upon it. For example kız istemek.

    We need to know how language functions, what is the speaker meaning, it is knowing about Pragmatics (Edin dili) and it is definitely different from semantics,

    Paralinguistic elements that are non-verbal elements

    Concordance: the ability to come together as words such as HAVALAR ısındı


    Dynamic: language is not static, it constanstly changes.

    When we speak languages


    Languaging: Language is a verb, taking action, reflecting world. It is a process and it’s not only verbal but it also requires non-verbal aspects such as music, science etc. Multimodel Language: Use of multimodal research, using more than semiotic source, we use sound, visual, color, background, angle etc.


    Comprehensiblity > accuracy

    English Teaching Methods – 2 | 03/05/2019


    Language use and Interaction in the classroom

    What is and What Should

    • If teaching equals to learning, our job would have been very easy but it doesn’t.

    Significance of Classroom Interaction

    • Classroom interaction contributes to language development by providing target language practice opportunities
    • Interaction is language learning. Ot is not merely the process whereby linguistic knowledge is practiced, but rather the process whereby linguistic knowledge, and linguistic ability, are themselves developed.
    • We need to provide opportunities use the language in the classroom and classroom interaction then becomes learning.
    • If the CLT or TBLT is the theoretical background, when you apply them by planning your lessons, usually we don’T expect to see any kind of mismatch.
    • If the major classroom interaction conducted by the teacher we can not define this class in the standards of TBLT and CLT.
    • We should also underline the education system and act according to learners’ age and personalities.
    • We plan our lessons and when we try to act up on the plan, it results in classroom interaction and this classroom interaction could be conflictual or cooperative.
    • Teach the students, not the plan!
      • Your plan might be excellent but if it doesn’t work out, if you sense that it is not working out, one of the very bad choices is sticking to your plan. We are in the classroom not to teach the plan but to teach to students.
      • Students will resist your plans because they are not used to it. In the traditional teaching context, when you try do communicative or intentional plan you might encounter negative feedback from especially the elder learners.
      Take these into consideration
      • Age
      • Personality
      • Language
      • Educational background

    On the spot decisions vs Planning Decisions

    • If you feel that your lesson plan isn’t working out in the class, you have to do on-the-spot decisions which are spontaneous decisions regarding the situation.

    Classroom Interaction

    • Teachers plan their lessons by making selections with regard what teach (syllabus), how to teach (method), and perhaps also to the nature of the social relationships they want tot encourage (atmosphere). When acted on, their plans result in classroom interaction.
    • Action by the teacher, reaction by the students, this is how classroom interaction is created. Teacher by himself cannot control the classroom interaction as its a two way interaction.
    • It is not panned in advance, it is co-produced with learners.
    • It reflects the pedagogic decisions that have been taken, and all revolves as part of the process accomplishing it.

    Teacher Controlled Classroom Interaction = Initiation – Response – Evaluation (I-R-E)

    • Usually it is not authenticity.
    • Little to no contextualisation.
    • Teacher to Students interaction, no communication among the students.
    • Teacher centred classes.

    The Teacher Allocated the turns by

    • Nominating
    • Signalling
    • Eye gaze
      Then selected students responds/reads her answer
      The teacher finally evaluates student’s response usually through repletion into case of a correct answer.

    Teacher: What time is it? (Initiation)
    Students: It’s 2 o’clock. (Response)
    Teacher: Good. It’s 2 pm. (Evaluation)

    Features of Teacher-Controlled Classroom Interaction

    • One-speaker-at-a-time rule rather than many-at-once.
    • Reluctance allow overlapping/simultaneous talk.
    • Rigid turn control by teacher.
    • Restriction of learners to a responding role.
    • Control of the content and direction of class-work by teacher.
    • Prevalence of teacher questioning.

    Whole-Class Teaching

    • The teacher directs the whole class and usually in this way, the interaction is one way, students cannot speak until the teacher allows them too. Disadvantages
      * It is teacher-dominated, with little opportunity for active students participation.
      * Teacher stand to interact with only a small number of students int he class.
      * Teacher Action Zone: In each class there are some bright students and those students sit in the particular places in the class and opposites would sit at the back. In the whole class teaching teachers intend to communicate with the students who are seated in his action zone.
      * It assumes that all students can proceed at the same pace. However, slower students may be lost, and brighter students may be held back. Advantages
      * It enables the teacher to teach large numbers of students at the same time.
      * It can serve as a preparation for subsequent activities which can be completed individually or in groups.

    Individual Work

    • When the students individually do some activity such as worksheet, this is called individual work.

    Functional Distribution of Teacher Talk

    • Questioning/Eliciting
      • Any act designed produce verbal response from students.
    • Responding
      • To another speaker’s contributions/utterances
    • Presenting/Explaining
      • Any act presenting information of direct relevance to the learning task.
    • Organising/Giving Instructions
      • Any act which serves structure the learning task without contributing to the learning task itself.
    • Evaluating/Correcting
      • Any act which rates another verbal act positively or negatively.
    • Sociating
      • Any act contributing tot he establishment or maintenance of classroom rapport.
    • Directing
      • Any act encouraging non-verbal activity as an integral part of the teaching/learning task.