Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Learner Autonomy in the language classroom

Why do we need it?

  • Basically about having one being responsible for his/her learning.

Scope for Autonomy in the CEF

  • The council of Europe supports methods of language teaching and learning.
    • Which help young people and indeed old learners to build up the attitudes, knowledge and skills they need to become more independent in thought and action, and more responsible and co-operative in relation to other people.
    • In this way the work contributes to the promotion of democratic citizenship.

The General Competence of Language Learners

  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Existential Competence
  • Ability to Learn

Which of the following tasks are the responsibility of the teacher?

  • Material selection / –
  • Final decision on what is right or wrong / –
  • Assessing students performance and giving feedback / –
  • Distributing and collecting materials and works / +
  • Providing information / –
  • Seating arrangements / –
  • Error correction / –
  • Sequencing of the learning materials / ?
  • Using tools and resources. / ?

Note: Negotiate with your students as much as possible.
* Aims and objectives
* Materials
* Self-directed learning
* Resources
* Ideas to deal with content
* Learner Roles
* Participatory
* Responsible
* Linking learning experiences
* Evaluation
* What
* Process and product oriented goals
* Why
* Planning, thinking
* How
* Observation
* …
* ..
* ..


Teacher Reflection Learner Reflection
————————— —————————


For Autonomous Learning

  • Starting with what they already know something about the target culture.
  • Achieving transparency in the choice of topics tone covered
  • Designing activities that will require personal response
  • Helping students to develop a comparative perspective on home culture and target culture.
  • Encouraging self-directed work through projects.

Learners as Decision Makers

  • The awareness of one’s present state of knowledge and skills.
  • The selection of objectives and goals to be pursued.
  • The self-directed choice of materials. The preferred methodology for learning.
  • The preferred modes of learning on one’s own.
  • The preffree means of assessment to see one’s own progress.

Structuring Reflection

  • What did you want to learn?
  • Did you sc


  • Promotes learner autonomy.
  • Helps the learner personalise his learning experience.
  • Encourages them to ry new learning strategies.
  • Challenges them to reflect on the process of learning.
  • Gives new direction to future work.

For Success Autonomous Learning needs to be..

  • Explicit
    • Know what you are studying for.
  • Systematic
  • Consistent
  • Reflective


AAA Curriculum

Any educational enterprise should include

  • Awareness
  • Autonomy
  • Authenticity

Learner Autonomy

Raising Awareness -> Changing Attitudes -> Transferring Roles


Process Writing

  • Emphasis on not only the end product but also the process.
  • You work together with the learners and there is continues peer support and there is writing, rewriting and again rewriting, that’s why it is a challenging thing but it is highly rewarding.
  • Generating Ideas<->Evaluating<->Drafting<->Structuring<->Focusing<->Reviewing<->Generating Ideas

Sequencing of Activities

  • Brainstorming, note-taking, asking questions
  • Free writing, selection of ideas, point of view Preliminary Draft
    * First revision
    * Organising content, structural organisation

Generating Ideas

  • Reading a text on the related topic
  • Doing research
  • Brain-storming
  • Individual listing ideas
  • Discussion
  • Answering guided questions of the teacher
  • Free association (clustering..,



  • İdentifying main and supportive ideas
  • Deciding how different ideas can be grouped together
  • Establishing logical links between groups of ideas
  • Deciding how to present these ideas in a sequence
  • Finding supportive points (additional knowledge)

Assessment of the Product

  • Content
    • Thesis statement, related ideas, delvopment of ideas through personal experience, illustration, facts, opinions, use of description, cause and effect, comparison, contrast
  • Organisation
    • Effectiveness of introduction, logical sequencing of ideas, conclusion, appropriate length
  • Discourse
    • Topic sentences, paragraph unity, transitions, discourse markers, cohesion, rhetorical conventions, reference-deictic words, fluency, economy, variation in the use of language patterns to avoid repetition and redundancy.
  • Language Use
    • Syntax+

Note: Teacher has to be correcting and responding.


Learning Styles

  • It has to do with the individual variables that is individual learners.

Learner Differences

  • Age
  • Motivation
  • Personality

Field Independent/Analytic

  • Enjoy individual work
  • Constantly compare what they have learnt
  • Good at abstraction
  • Analytical and they want to calibrate themselves
  • Left brain orientation
  • Long memory span

Field Dependent

  • Social learners
  • Rather initiative
  • Enjoy contextualised learning
  • Responsive and communicative


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