Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

What does it mean to know a language

1972 A linguistic went to Warsaw and from morning to night the tv was open, he walked the streets, went to the cafes but did he manage to speak the language? No, he didn’t.

It is not just a matter of exposure but quality exposure. Just exposure is not enough to learn a language and if you are just investing on receptive skills, your productive skills will be held back.

The best way to learn a language is to contextualize the learning. What is contextualizing?

That is use of language but on domains, you in a way define what possible intentions, who, where, etc. who is talking to who

People who are engaged in communication are Called interlecuaters.

They are talking about what?

One of the golden things about ELT is contextualizing.

Authentic language means a language that is not adapted for educational purposes, just the real life communication.

Content-based approach to Language is best way to teach a language, you should bring different materials for your classes.

Hearing, speaking, reading, writing, > all these integrated Hallstic Teaching.

If you are talking about communication there needs to be integration among those skills and you have to priotorize holistic teaching.

From the very first lesson of words what you have to do is let people read something respond to it, discuss about it and take notes and share it with others as well as listen to their notes.

(Even note taking is a writing activity)

What does it mean to know a language?


  1. Lexicon: voabulary
  2. Syntax: what are the rules


The tone the style which suits that particular situation.

Frozen register: Military, airport announcements


It has to be with socio-linguistic competence that means dictionaries can’t help you.


Corpus measures the kinds of words that are used by native speakers of the language in a time.

Corpora – High frequency words – Low frequent words

Phonemes to Morphemes to Words to Phrases to Clauses to Sentence to Paragraphs…. So you need to know about discourse and discourse means organization of the language.

Morphemes are meaningful meanwhile Phonemes are just sounds.

Coherence – Cohesion (Bağdaşıklık, Bağlaşıklık)

Cohesion: Which words are indicators

Genre is a cultural item, because the community decides upon it. For example kız istemek.

We need to know how language functions, what is the speaker meaning, it is knowing about Pragmatics (Edin dili) and it is definitely different from semantics,

Paralinguistic elements that are non-verbal elements

Concordance: the ability to come together as words such as HAVALAR ısındı


Dynamic: language is not static, it constanstly changes.

When we speak languages


Languaging: Language is a verb, taking action, reflecting world. It is a process and it’s not only verbal but it also requires non-verbal aspects such as music, science etc. Multimodel Language: Use of multimodal research, using more than semiotic source, we use sound, visual, color, background, angle etc.


Comprehensiblity > accuracy

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