Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

How about assessing task difficult that is what makes a tack easier or more difficult than another task.

Task Difficulty

  • Cognitive level
  • Language complexity
    • Existence of hard grammar structures, new word density, use of high frequency and low frequency words
  • Accessibility
    • Subject Familiarity, but it does not come just with the topic, so there is this issue of topic familiarity.
    • Task familiarity, if they regularly do a task, they would get used to it and perform better but if you present them a new task.

As teachers, ask these questions to yourself

  • Why am I doing this task with the learners?
    • What is my purpose in doing this task?
      • You should focus either focus on accuracy, fluency or complexity.
  • What is the content of the task?
    • Drawing familiar or unfamiliar information.
    • To what extent they are familiar with the given content.
  • How is the task to be carried out?
    • Will there be planning before doing the task.
    • Should I give them planning time or should I ask immediate answers.
  • In what situation is the task to be carried out?
    • Will it be monologic or diologic?

Task Adaption is preparing the students to the task from the pre-task stage to make it easier for them.

Less structured information tasks = More creativity in the process.

Task Dimensions and Task Difficulty

  • Code Complexity
    • Linguistic complexity and variety.
    • Vocabulary load and variety.
    • Redundancy and density.
  • Cognitive Complexity
    • Cognitive Familiarity
      • Familiarity of topic and its predictability.
      • Familiarity of discourse genre.
      • Familiarity of task.
    • Cognitive Processing
      • Information organising.
      • Amount of computation.
      • Clarity and sufficiency of information given.
      • Information time.
  • Communicative Stress
    • Time limits and time pressure.
    • Speed of presentation.
    • Number of participants.
    • Length of texts used Type of response.
    • Opportunities to control interaction.

——————

Foster & Skehan

  • …Being able to assess a task’s difficult is crucial to understating how it might be performed
  • Knowing what demands the task will make opens up the possibility of using task design to manipulate learners…

CEF

  • …in the case of tasks designed for language learning or teaching purposes, performance ,s concerned both kWh meaning and the way meanings are comprehended, expressed andengotiated.
  • A changing başance need to be established between attention to meaning and form, fluency and accuracy in the overall selection and sequencing of tasks so that both task performance and language learning process

————-

Easier
Learner
* Is confident about the task
* Is motivated to carry out the task
* Has necessary prior learning experiences
* Can learn at pace required
* Has necessary

Task
    * Low cognitive complexity
    * Has few steps
    * Plenty of context provided
    * Plenty of help available
    * Does not require grammatical accuracy
    * Has as much time as necessary

Text / Input
    * Is short, not dense (few facts)
    * Clear presentation
    * Plenty of contextual clues
    * Familiar, everyday content

Harder

Learner

Task

Text / Input

——————————

Task Demands

Cognitive Demands
    * Degree of contextualisation of language; difficult of concepts that re needed to do the task.
        * Use of graphics, colours, telling the time…

Language Demands
    * Whether the language is spoken or written, understanding or production, extended talk or conversation; vocabulary and grammar need, the genre, the amount of L1 and L2

Interactional Demands
    * Type of interaction required.
        * Group work, pair work, the participants in talk, the future of interaction. 

Metalinguistic Demands
    * The use of technical terms about langue in production or comprehension.

Involvement Demands
    * The ease or difficulty the learner has in engaging with the task; legs of task stages, links to child’s interest and concerns.

Physical Demands

* How long the child sits still for; actions needed, motor skills needed.

———

Abstract things are always more difficult than concrete things.

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