Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Life-long Learning

Joint Learning Enterprise

  • Always taking responsibility to learn
  • Revising your procedures on a life time span
  • Learner autonomy is extremely important. You can not invest on lifelong learning whiteout autonomy.
  • Self-Assessment
  • Reflective learning


  • Social networking is important for language learning.
  • Cooperative Learning – Teaching: teachers working together for the same classes.

If we know the desired outcomes for using that IT technology, it is useful

Action Research

  • The researchers are Teachers + Students
  • Mini self assasseemnt form after the tests and measure the results and identify the problems in order to improve and solve problems which is a very valuable way building a good relationship with the student, progressive teaching and a very indispensable part of the action research is autonomy.
  • Teacher and student cooperation but also it is not something that has to be employed once, if it does that way it would only be a lecture.

In service education

First of all clerification of terminology is very important.

Approach: About our initial question, the way you define language, the way you define. Approach is this understanding of this Lanague learning teaching
Method: The roadmap- plan but it is not just the activity sheets. Aims, specific objectives, teaching content (syllabus), materials, specific procedures and techniques, assessment and evaluation
Process: What do no now and what to do next, how do you things
Technique: Depens on the need and applies on the specific situation.

Within the approach you can use various methodologies

Designer methods: Who created that method would come up with a name. Method if it comes to that point, method is usually used in a very clarified, everything is defined such as Audolingual method, Suggestopedia

Post method: there is no one particular defined method


Audio lingual: structuralism

Sytagmatic: you know what words will come in an order
Paradicmatic: you know which item to take out and put another one instead of it

Drills are widely used

Approach to learning is behaviourism,: if you give a stimulus and get a correct respond you gotta continue.

Errors are not tolerate, importance on accuracy


TPR is a technique

Silent Way:


Structural Syllabus: Collection of forms and sturductres usually grammatical of the language being taught
Notinal Syllabus: Collection of the functions that re performed when language is used. Notions that is used to express.
Situational Syllabus: Collection of real or imaginary situations in which language occurs or is used.
Skill Based Syllabus: Collection of specific abilities that may play a part in using language.
Task Based Syllabus: Series of complex and purposeful tasks that the students want or need to perform with the language they are learning.
Content Based Syllabus: Some content or information different from language.

Constructivism (Yapılandırmacı)

  • Knowledge can not be taught but must be constructed by the learner.
  • Constructivist approaches describe how people transform and organise reality according to common intellectual principles as a result of interactions with the environment.
    • You attract meaning to experience depending on the interaction with the environment.
    • It is experience based learning.
  • Effective learning begins from the learner’s active participation in the process of learning.
    • Learners need to be involved in decisions about the content and processes of learning.
      • You should allow space for autonomy.

    You can not teach a notion but you can show ways of it.

    Constructive Approaches to Learning

    • Human brain is not simply a “mental” or “cognitive” apparatus, but is actually a social organ. (Pool 1997)
    • Following a social constructivist view of learning, Human beings create their own notion of reality and give meaning to it through the filtering of their experiences and perceptions in social contexts.
    • The learners should be encouraged to process information, make comparisons, construct knowledge and make critical judgements.

    Learning in Constructivist Classrooms

    • Primary resources are used in the classroom.
      • Authentic (texts that are not produced for the learners)
    • Experiential learning is integrated into the classroom.
    • The lessons build on students’ prior knowledge.
      • Their background knowledge. (You start from what they already know)
    • Constructivist learning is integrated into collaborative and cooperative learning activities.
    • Hands-on activities are integrated into the curriculum.
      • Related to experiential learning
    • Classroom learning is dynamic, ever-changing, evolving, reflective, enquiry-based.

    A Construvisit Frmae for Language Classes

    Initiating U Constructing U Utilising

    1. Connect what they know with the new information. Always dig deeper.
    2. Reengaging it, learning by doing it
    3. Outside of the classroom such as projects

    Cubing Activities


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