Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri
Joint Learning Enterprise
- Always taking responsibility to learn
- Revising your procedures on a life time span
- Learner autonomy is extremely important. You can not invest on lifelong learning whiteout autonomy.
- Reflective learning
- Social networking is important for language learning.
- Cooperative Learning – Teaching: teachers working together for the same classes.
If we know the desired outcomes for using that IT technology, it is useful
- The researchers are Teachers + Students
- Mini self assasseemnt form after the tests and measure the results and identify the problems in order to improve and solve problems which is a very valuable way building a good relationship with the student, progressive teaching and a very indispensable part of the action research is autonomy.
- Teacher and student cooperation but also it is not something that has to be employed once, if it does that way it would only be a lecture.
In service education
First of all clerification of terminology is very important.
Approach: About our initial question, the way you define language, the way you define. Approach is this understanding of this Lanague learning teaching
Method: The roadmap- plan but it is not just the activity sheets. Aims, specific objectives, teaching content (syllabus), materials, specific procedures and techniques, assessment and evaluation
Process: What do no now and what to do next, how do you things
Technique: Depens on the need and applies on the specific situation.
Within the approach you can use various methodologies
Designer methods: Who created that method would come up with a name. Method if it comes to that point, method is usually used in a very clarified, everything is defined such as Audolingual method, Suggestopedia
Post method: there is no one particular defined method
Audio lingual: structuralism
Sytagmatic: you know what words will come in an order
Paradicmatic: you know which item to take out and put another one instead of it
Drills are widely used
Approach to learning is behaviourism,: if you give a stimulus and get a correct respond you gotta continue.
Errors are not tolerate, importance on accuracy
TPR is a technique
Structural Syllabus: Collection of forms and sturductres usually grammatical of the language being taught
Notinal Syllabus: Collection of the functions that re performed when language is used. Notions that is used to express.
Situational Syllabus: Collection of real or imaginary situations in which language occurs or is used.
Skill Based Syllabus: Collection of specific abilities that may play a part in using language.
Task Based Syllabus: Series of complex and purposeful tasks that the students want or need to perform with the language they are learning.
Content Based Syllabus: Some content or information different from language.
- Knowledge can not be taught but must be constructed by the learner.
- Constructivist approaches describe how people transform and organise reality according to common intellectual principles as a result of interactions with the environment.
- You attract meaning to experience depending on the interaction with the environment.
- It is experience based learning.
- Effective learning begins from the learner’s active participation in the process of learning.
- Learners need to be involved in decisions about the content and processes of learning.
- You should allow space for autonomy.
You can not teach a notion but you can show ways of it.
Constructive Approaches to Learning
- Human brain is not simply a “mental” or “cognitive” apparatus, but is actually a social organ. (Pool 1997)
- Following a social constructivist view of learning, Human beings create their own notion of reality and give meaning to it through the filtering of their experiences and perceptions in social contexts.
- The learners should be encouraged to process information, make comparisons, construct knowledge and make critical judgements.
Learning in Constructivist Classrooms
- Primary resources are used in the classroom.
- Authentic (texts that are not produced for the learners)
- Experiential learning is integrated into the classroom.
- The lessons build on students’ prior knowledge.
- Their background knowledge. (You start from what they already know)
- Constructivist learning is integrated into collaborative and cooperative learning activities.
- Hands-on activities are integrated into the curriculum.
- Related to experiential learning
- Classroom learning is dynamic, ever-changing, evolving, reflective, enquiry-based.
A Construvisit Frmae for Language Classes
Initiating U Constructing U Utilising
- Connect what they know with the new information. Always dig deeper.
- Reengaging it, learning by doing it
- Outside of the classroom such as projects
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