Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is a dual focused educational approach in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of both content and language. That is, in the teaching and learning process, there is a focus not only on language. Each is interwoven, even if the emphasis is greater on one or the other at a given time.

There are 216 different ways of implementation.

… & Language

  1. Immersion: Students experience the foreign language in all of their classes.
  2. Sheltered Instruction: You pick those students up and put them in a special classroom with simplified foreign language use in classes.
  3. Adjunct Courses: Two separate courses, two separate subjects but they focus on the same content.
  4. Theme-based Approaches: The most general one is this approach. The emphasise is not only on the content but on the language as well.

Language is not only a medium of communication but a means of managing learning, it’s the tool we use toggle reflective shape t our experience.

  • Language of Learning
  • Language for Learning: There would be specific grammatical features that would really help us do the activities related to that content. How do we use our language to shape our knowledge.
  • Language Through Learning

The difference between ELT and CLIL Based ELT

CALP (Congitive Academic Language Proficiency 
    * Scaffolding
    * Building on prior knowledge
    * Show casing their literacy achievement
    * Extending knowledge of and control over language across curriculum. (Take up the content area from different classes such as math, science and make rejoiced connection between those content area. Language courses should not be separated from other classes.

BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)
    * -

Key Terms

  • Focus is on the language forms and functions which bet serve the learner.
  • ıNCREASE MOTİVATİON TO PROMOTE EFFECTİVE LEARNİNG.
  • Any teaching builds upon the previous experience…
  • ….
  • ..
  • ..

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Word Generation

You may want your students to brainstorm and write words

Four Box Organiser

The Vocabulary Word > Visual reprenstation of the word > A sentence using the word > Student Friendly definition > The vocabulary word

Graphical organisers should be used greatly.

  • Texts are hierarchically organised (more important-less important)
  • Readers tend to focus on and remember information at higher levels
  • Top-level sctuructual information influence comprehension and recall
  • Awareness of text structuring aissit students’ content learning.
  1. Present good examples of completed graphic organisers
  2. Model how to construct graphic organisers.
  3. Discuss
  4. .
  5. .
  6. .

Venn diagram – Comparing two places of Interest
Spider map –
Fishbone Map –
Problem Solution Outline –
Cycle – Describing a weather phenomenon (rain)

Constructing
Students engage in developing knowledge;
* Engaging
* Interacting
* Processing
* Associating
* Organising
* Note-Taking

Initiating

  • Content Journal: It is like a portfolio, It is about what they already acquired, it needs to be progressive and consistent
  • Brain Racing
  • Mysterious Possibilities
  • What’s in a picture: What do you think the content might be
  • Question of the day: You want your students to come about a question with no “yes-no” answers such as “How does math resemble the ballet”. You want your students to bring their own questions but these should be not knowledge-challenge question. For one week you choose one and ask it to the class to make a research on it and answer it.
  • Vocabulary Alert: You want your students to keep a vocabulary journal, |(IDK)————(Sort of)—————(Ik)|, students put an x on the fitting place regarding their knowledge and then making them guess the word. This is important for self-assessment as they will go back to their vocabulary journal and check where they are on the chart at that time.
  • The ten most important words: You are asking the children to select 5-10 key terms, discussing what is more important, relevant.
  • The Minute-Preview

Constructing

  • Pen-in hand: It is about writing. One of the fallacy in language classes is asking for summary of a book after the learners read, this is very bad as without scaffolding, investing on it, it is not good to ask for a summary as summaries are like making a snowball, how do you make a snowball. You have to gather it, shape it and then we collect more and shape it again, each time we do this we realise that process is important. When someone says writing skill everyone think that it is about writing an essay but its not.
    • Undelrine
    • Margin notes
    • Graphic organization
    • Note-taking
    • Outlining
    • Summarising
    • Paraphrasing
    • Preci-writing: You have to make a comprehensible text by using randomly given words without changing their order.
  • I wonder why?
  • Venn diagram: compering two things
  • Text structure: outlining a text
  • Quizzical Quotes: Hoca ne soarer? If you are reading an article when you see an important thing you say woah that Is an important thing.
  • Missing words: Not to be confused with drills, it has to be a concept, “It is very important to say…………”
  • Concept Collection: What is already known, what is new material, they make research, what does the text offer
  • Opinion Guide: What do It take the authority as, agree or disagree, it is like a response paper
  • Note-taking: take a few key words that defines a paragraph

Utilizing

  • E-mails: e-mail projects such as mutual projects
  • Simulation:
  • Raft: Means çekiliş. You have particular topic to deal with such as Eating habits, rafting is about writing but before writing, together with the classroom you make a raft table consists of “Role, Audience, Format and Topic”, each student will be writing from different role, audience, format and topic, this will give them a chance to experiment about different genres and writing processes.
  • Discussion Continuum: Pick up a point and make the students battle to the death.
  • Ethical Choices: Usually dangerous in second and third world countries. You could discuss Genetically mutated humans? Should death penalty be legalised?
  • Project Journal: keeping a journal of the project
  • I-search paper: write a paper minimum 300 hundred words and reference to the author
  • Cubing:

Thinks to Beware While Reading

  • Gaining competence inreading (getting messages- reading and understating)
  • Identifying the purpose in reading (acquiring knowledge, taking pleasure) and utilising related methodologies and strategies.
  • Developing
  • *
  • *
  • *
  • *

Identifying text type and communicative …..

  • Perceive the writtien text
  • Recognise language structures
  • Identify the message
  • Comprehend the message
  • Interprets the message (critical thinking, etc.)

We usually ask knowledge questions, we don’t give enough space for analysis, synthesis and evaluative questions.

In constructivist approach the most important thing is building upon the already known information.

Schema Theory

When new information comes in, cognitively what happens is that you check the new information if it fits the previously learned information or not. This is the stage in which equilibrium comes to the stage but if new information does not fit with the formar information, that means that your existing schema should be changed in order to continue and this is called disequilibrium.

They go hand in hand with very related two other concepts

  1. Zone of Proximal Development: What a person can learn with a support. The teachers role is to arrange the learning environment in a such a way that you help that learner to take a step considering her/his capability. Teacher’s job is to make the students realise her/his potential.
  2. Scaffolding: Not upfront teaching but giving a supporting hand only when the learner needs or demands it. It is not rushing and teaching but it is about organising the environment.

Language is not just a medium, language organises learning. Language helps us construct, shape our experience. Such as when children are talking to themselves to shape their learning.

Problem solving is a part of learning.

Your emphasis is on constructivist approach should be on process learning and it is really important in constructivist classrooms. Process learning is experiencing, experimenting, disequilibrium and equilibrium. You can support this kind of learning with Portfolios, project learning and collaborative learning. There shouldn’t competitive learning.

In terms of assessment, it favours formative assessment rather than summative assessment,

  1. To keep an eye on the process of learning, formative assessment about formation.
  2. After completion of all term, you move into centralised exams and the ultimate objective is to see what they learned (product).

For collobartion activities you could use jigsaw (usually it is a group work, each person knows a different segment of something without showing a piece to other one they communicate with each other fill the gaps).

Constructivist approaches are good for content building

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