Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri

1980-1990 >

It is an advanced form of the communicative. The need is helping learners gaining fluency in the target language.

  • It needs to be learner centred
    • You have to be engaging them in a task-based work.
    • You give the task, they work on it, they use the language and they try to progress communicatively.
  • It is really based on cooperative and collaborative learning.
    • There is space for individual tasks but you can not possibly persue task based learning in your classes without having pair and group works.
  • It is based upon interactive learning.
    • Interactive learning in that sense can only be achieved if only the upper conditions are served already as well as using an authentic text.
    • You have to be proficient in material design.
  • It supports whole language learning
    • Means integration of all skills such as listening, speaking and writing.
    • Task based learning is basically about how we use languages to fulfil certain tasks.
    • From the very beginning you encourage your students to all these skills.
    • It is about using language to fulfil social circumstances.
    • The sum of the parts do not make the whole.
      • Alination of units.
      • Anti structural.

Task based learning is holistic learning.
The key concern in task based context is meaningful learning.
* Drills never ever can be task based learning.

PPP (Presentation – Practice – Production)

  • Present the topic (Simple Present Tense)
  • Practice in a very controlled way (Drills)
  • You assume that students will be able to produce this (In an other context)
  • This is a linear approach.

Task based methodology is designed as an alternative way to the PPP model. TBL changes the sequence of this linear model.

  • It starts with a mini-presentation.
    • Teacher explains what kind of a task they are going to accomplish.
    • Teacher gives input for the necessary target.
  • Production
    • Students in a way engage in task accomplishment immediately.
    • This allows the use of learning by doing it.
  • If there is need for a specific language focus for further work on that language item, then Practice stage comes.

Task Based Learning Framework

    * The teacher introduces the topic and provides the necessary input for the upcoming task.
    * It is the preparation for the task-cycle.
Task Cycle
        * After the task is done, the group or the individual have/has to present the conclusion to the other students.
        * This is especially important as the students may fall into their native languages to accomplish the task and for this reason reporting stage makes them report their task result in the target language and that is why it is very important.
Language Focus
        * If explicit grammar teaching is required after the task cycle.

Task Identification Criteria

  • Meaningful Purpose
    • Use of language in a meaningful way as you would use it in your daily life language.
  • Input
    • Providing a clear input to act upon.
    • What kinds of materials do I bring in, what kind of task instructions do I give.
  • Output
    • It needs to have a language outcome
    • By doing this task and reporting the task results, they should be engaged in meaningful communication.
  • Optimum Level of Difficulty
    • Optimised difficulty for the students.
      • It is about their cognitive level, not their English level.

Task Types

  • In lıtereature there are alternative ways of defining task types
    • Open Tasks: Unpredictable as whole
    • Close Tasks: Spot the difference: Language might be used in unpredictable ways but at the end the outcome will be certain.
  • No tasks type is harden than the other.
  • Tasks could be cumulative (add on each other)
  • Task Types
    • Listing
      • Could be used for self-assessment.
    • Ordering – Sorting:
    • Comparing:
    • Problem Solving:
    • Sharing Personal Experiences:
    • Creative Tasks:

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